Sejarah Dinasti Han

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Lompat ke: navigasi, cari
dinasti Han pada tahun 2 Masehi (coklat), dengan garisun-garisun militer (titik kuning), negara-negara dependen (titik hijau), dan negara-negara vasal tributer (titik jingga) sampai Cekungan Tarim di bagian barat Asia Tengah

Dinasti Han (206 SM – 220 M), yang didirikan oleh pemimpin pemberontak petani Liu Bang (yang secara anumerta dikenal sebagai Kaisar Gaozu),[note 1] adalah dinasti kekaisaran Tiongkok kedua. Dinasti tersebut menyusul dinasti Qin (221–206 SM), yang menyatukan Negara-negara Berperang di Tiongkok melalui penaklukan. Diperintah oleh dinasti Xin (9–23 Masehi) dari Wang Mang, dinasti Han terbagi dalam dua masa: Han Barat (206 SM – 9 M) dan Han Timur (25–220 M). Kedua masa dinasti tersebut terbagi dari lokasi ibukotanya, masing-masing Chang'an dan Luoyang. Ibukota ketiga dan terakhir dari dinasti tersebut adalah Xuchang, saat pemerintahannya pindah pada tahun 196 Masehi pada masa gejolak politik dan perang saudara.

Dinasti Han memerintah pada masa konsolidasi kebudayaan, percobaan politik, kedewasaan dan peningkatan ekonomi, dan kemajuan teknologi Tiongkok. Terdapat perluasan wilayah yang sebelumnya belum tercapai dan penjelajahan yang dilakukan dengan perjuangan bersama para orang non-Tiongkok, khususnya bangsa nomadik Xiongnu dari Stepa Eurasia.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Dari dinasti Shang sampai dinasti Sui, para penguasa Tiongkok disebut dalam catatan-catatan akhir dengan nama-nama anumerta mereka, sementara kaisar-kaisar dinasti Tang sampai dinasti Yuan disebut dengan nama-nama kuil mereka dan kaisar-kaisar dinasti Ming dan dinasti Qing disebut dengan nama-nama era tunggal untuk pemerintahan mereka. Lihat Chinese History (1998) karya Endymion Wilkinson, halaman 106–107.

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Akira, Hirakawa. (1998). A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamani to Early Mahayana. Translated by Paul Groner. New Delhi: Jainendra Prakash Jain At Shri Jainendra Press. ISBN 978-81-208-0955-0.
  • An, Jiayao. (2002). "When Glass Was Treasured in China," in Silk Road Studies VII: Nomads, Traders, and Holy Men Along China's Silk Road, 79–94. Edited by Annette L. Juliano and Judith A. Lerner. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers. ISBN 978-2-503-52178-7.
  • Ball, Warwick (2016). Rome in the East: Transformation of an Empire, 2nd edition. London & New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-72078-6.
  • Beck, Mansvelt. (1986). "The Fall of Han," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 317-376. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Barbieri-Low, Anthony J. (2007). Artisans in Early Imperial China. Seattle & London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-98713-2.
  • Bielenstein, Hans. (1986). "Wang Mang, the Restoration of the Han Dynasty, and Later Han," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 223–290. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Chang, Chun-shu. (2007). The Rise of the Chinese Empire: Volume II; Frontier, Immigration, & Empire in Han China, 130 B.C. – A.D. 157. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-11534-1.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, Mark. (2006). Readings in Han Chinese Thought. Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87220-710-3.
  • Cullen, Christoper. (2006). Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China: The Zhou Bi Suan Jing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-03537-8.
  • Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514366-9.
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
  • Demiéville, Paul. (1986). "Philosophy and religion from Han to Sui," in Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 808–872. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Deng, Yingke. (2005). Ancient Chinese Inventions. Translated by Wang Pingxing. Beijing: China Intercontinental Press (五洲传播出版社). ISBN 978-7-5085-0837-5.
  • Di Cosmo, Nicola. (2002). Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77064-4.
  • Ebrey, Patricia. (1986). "The Economic and Social History of Later Han," in Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 608-648. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Ebrey, Patricia (1999). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66991-7.
  • Hansen, Valerie. (2000). The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600. New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-97374-7.
  • Hendrischke, Barbara. (2000). "Early Daoist Movements" in Daoism Handbook, ed. Livia Kohn, 134-164. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11208-7.
  • Hinsch, Bret. (2002). Women in Imperial China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7425-1872-8.
  • Huang, Ray. (1988). China: A Macro History. Armonk & London: M.E. Sharpe Inc., an East Gate Book. ISBN 978-0-87332-452-6.
  • Hulsewé, A.F.P. (1986). "Ch'in and Han law," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 520-544. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Kramers, Robert P. (1986). "The Development of the Confucian Schools," in Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 747–756. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Lewis, Mark Edward. (2007). The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02477-9.
  • Loewe, Michael. (1986). "The Former Han Dynasty," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 103–222. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Loewe, Michael. (1994). Divination, Mythology and Monarchy in Han China. Cambridge, New York, and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-45466-7.
  • Loewe, Michael. (2000). A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han, and Xin Periods (221 BC — AD 24). Leiden, Boston, Koln: Koninklijke Brill NV. ISBN 978-90-04-10364-1.
  • Mawer, Granville Allen (2013). "The Riddle of Cattigara" in Robert Nichols and Martin Woods (eds), Mapping Our World: Terra Incognita to Australia, 38–39, Canberra: National Library of Australia. ISBN 978-0-642-27809-8.
  • Minford, John and Joseph S.M. Lau. (2002). Classical Chinese literature: an anthology of translations. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-09676-8.
  • Morton, William Scott and Charlton M. Lewis. (2005). China: Its History and Culture: Fourth Edition. New York City: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-141279-7.
  • Needham, Joseph (1965). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part II: Mechanical Engineering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reprint from Taipei: Caves Books, 1986. ISBN 978-0-521-05803-2.
  • Nishijima, Sadao. (1986). "The Economic and Social History of Former Han," in Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 545-607. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • O'Reilly, Dougald J.W. (2007). Early Civilizations of Southeast Asia. Lanham, New York, Toronto, Plymouth: AltaMira Press, Division of Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0-7591-0279-1.
  • Pai, Hyung Il. "Culture Contact and Culture Change: The Korean Peninsula and Its Relations with the Han Dynasty Commandery of Lelang," World Archaeology, Vol. 23, No. 3, Archaeology of Empires (Feb., 1992): 306-319.
  • Shi, Rongzhuan. "The Unearthed Burial Jade in the Tombs of Han Dynasty's King and Marquis and the Study of Jade Burial System", Cultural Relics of Central China, No. 5 (2003): 62–72. ISSN 1003-1731.
  • Suárez, Thomas (1999). Early Mapping of Southeast Asia. Singapore: Periplus Editions. ISBN 962-593-470-7.
  • Tom, K.S. (1989). Echoes from Old China: Life, Legends, and Lore of the Middle Kingdom. Honolulu: The Hawaii Chinese History Center of the University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1285-0.
  • Torday, Laszlo. (1997). Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham: The Durham Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-900838-03-0.
  • Wagner, Donald B. (2001). The State and the Iron Industry in Han China. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Publishing. ISBN 978-87-87062-83-1.
  • Wang, Zhongshu. (1982). Han Civilization. Translated by K.C. Chang and Collaborators. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-02723-5.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. (1998). Chinese History: A Manual. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Asia Center of the Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-12377-9.
  • Wood, Frances. (2002). The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24340-8.
  • Young, Gary K. (2001), Rome's Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 BC - AD 305, London & New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-24219-3.
  • Yü, Ying-shih. (1967). Trade and Expansion in Han China: A Study in the Structure of Sino-Barbarian Economic Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Yü, Ying-shih. (1986). "Han Foreign Relations," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 377-462. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Zhang, Guanuda. (2002). "The Role of the Sogdians as Translators of Buddhist Texts," in Silk Road Studies VII: Nomads, Traders, and Holy Men Along China's Silk Road, 75–78. Edited by Annette L. Juliano and Judith A. Lerner. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers. ISBN 978-2-503-52178-7.

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Dubs, Homer H. (trans.) The History of the Former Han Dynasty. 3 vols. Baltimore: Waverly Press, 1938-
  • Hill, John E. (2009) Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. John E. Hill. BookSurge, Charleston, South Carolina. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]