Neorealisme ofensif

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John Mearsheimer, teoriwan neorealisme ofensif.

Neorealisme ofensif adalah teori struktural yang termasuk dalam mazhab neorealis dan pertama kali dipaparkan oleh John Mearsheimer.[1] Teori ini percaya bahwa sifat sistem internasional yang anarkis membuat negara-negara memiliki perilaku agresif dalam politik internasional. Teori ini berbeda dengan neorealisme defensif-nya Kenneth Waltz. Para neorealis ofensif menyatakan bahwa negara-negara besar adalah revisionis yang hendak memaksimalkan kekuasaannya dengan mengutamakan pengalihan tanggung jawab ketimbang penyeimbangan saat berusaha mendominasi sistem internasional. Neorealisme ofensif memberi kontribusi alternatif penting bagi studi dan pemahaman hubungan internasional, tetapi banyak yang mengkritik teori ini.

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Feng, Liu and Zhang Ruizhuang. “The Typologies of Realism.” Chinese Journal of International Politics 1 (2006): 109-134.
  • Hendrickson, David C. “The Lion and the Lamb: Realism and Liberalism Reconsidered.” World Policy Journal 20:1 (2003): 93-102.
  • Kaplan, Robert D. “Why John J. Mearsheimer Is Right (About Some Things).” The Atlantic Magazine (2012). Accessed 13 April 2012
  • Kirshner, Jonathan. “The Tragedy of Offensive Realism: Classical Realism and the Rise of China.” European Journal of International Relations 18:1 (2012): 53-75.
  • Labs, Eric. “Beyond Victory: Offensive Realism and the Expansion of War Aims.” Security Studies 6:4 (1997): 1-49.
  • Lake, David A. “Two Cheers for Bargaining Theory: Assessing Rationalist Explanations of the Iraq War.” International Security 35:3 (2010/11): 7-52.
  • Layne, Christopher. “The Poster Child for Offensive Realism: America as a Global Hegemon.” Security Studies 12:2 (2002/2003): 120-163.
  • Lee, Gerald Geunwook. “To be Long or Not to Be Long—That is the Question: The Contradiction of Time-Horizon in Offensive Realism.” Security Studies 12:2 (2002/2003): 196-217.
  • Levy, Jack S. and William R. Thompson. “Balancing on Land and at Sea: Do States Ally Against the Leading Global Power?” International Security 35:1 (2010): 7-43.
  • Lieber, Keir A. and Gerard Alexander. “Waiting for Balancing Why the World Is Not Pushing Back.” International Security 30:1 (2005): 109-139.
  • Mearsheimer, John J. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security 19:3 (1994-1995): 5-49.
  • Mearsheimer, John J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2001.
  • Mearsheimer, John J. “China’s Unpeaceful Rise.” Current History 105:690 (2006): 160-162.
  • Pashakhanlou, Arash Heydarian. “Back to the Drawing Board: A Critique of Offensive Realism.” International Relations 27:202 (2013): 202-225.
  • Pashakhanlou, Arash Heydarian. “Waltz, Mearsheimer and the Post-Cold War World: The Rise of America and the Fall of Structural Realism”, International Politics 51:3 (2014): 295–315.
  • Rynning, Sten and Jens Ringsmose. “Why Are Revisionist States Revisionist? Reviving Classical Realism as an Approach to Understanding International Change.” International Politics 45 (2008): 19-39.
  • Shiping Tang. “From Offensive to Defensive Realism: A Social Evolutionary Interpretation of China’s Security Strategy.” In China's Ascent: Power, Security, and the Future of International Politics, edited by Robert Ross and Zhu Feng, 141-162. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2008.
  • Snyder, Glenn H. "Mearsheimer’s World—Offensive Realism and the Struggle for Security: A Review Essay." International Security 27:1 (2002): 149-173.
  • Taliaferro, Jeffrey W. "Security Seeking Under Anarchy: Defensive Realism Revisited." International Security 25: 3 (2000/2001): 128-161.
  • Toft, Peter. "John J. Mearsheimer: an offensive realist between geopolitics and power." Journal of International Relations and Development 8 (2005): 381-408.
  • Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979).
  • Waltz, Kenneth N. "Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory." Journal of International Affairs 44:1 (1990): 21-37.
  • Waltz, Kenneth N. "International Politics Is Not Foreign Policy." Security Studies 6:1 (1996): 54-57.
  • Wang, Yuan-Kang. "Offensive Realism and the Rise of China." Issues & Studies 40:1 (2004): 173-201.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Robert Giplin, War and Change in World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).
  • Randall L. Schweller, “Bandwagoning for Profit: Bringing the Revisionist State Back In”, International Security 19 :1 (1994): 72–107.
  • Fareed Zarkaria, From Wealth to Power: the Unusual Origins of America’s World Role (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998).