Realisme defensif

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Neorealisme defensif adalah teori struktural yang diambil dari aliran realisme dalam teori hubungan internasional. Neorealisme defensif berakar dari Theory of International Politics karya Kenneth Waltz. Waltz berpendapat bahwa struktur sistem internasional yang anarkis mendorong negara untuk mempertahankan kebijakan moderat dan isolasionis demi menciptakan keamanan.[1] Sebaliknya, realisme ofensif berpendapat bahwa negara ingin memaksimalkan kekuasaan dan pengaruhnya demi meraih keamanan melalui dominasi dan hegemoni.[2] Neorealisme defensif menyatakan bahwa perluasan agresif a la neorealis ofensif mengubah kecenderungan negara untuk mematuhi teori keseimbangan kekuasaan, lantas mengurangi nilai tujuan utama negara, yaitu menjamin keamanan nasionalnya.[3] Meski realisme defensif tidak membantah adanya konflik antarnegara atau ketiadaan pemicu perluasan negara, realisme defensif menyatakan bahwa pemicu tersebut bersifat sporadis, tidak endemis. Neorealisme defensif condong ke "pengubah struktur" seperti dilema keamanan dan geografi, serta kepercayaan dan persepsi kaum elit, untuk menjelaskan konflik.[4]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw Hill (1979)
  2. ^ Mearsheimer, John J., The Tragedy of Great Power Politics New York: W.W. Norton (2001)
  3. ^ Layne, C, “The Unipolar Illusion: Why New Great Powers Will Rise International Studies Review 5 (2003) 303-324
  4. ^ Taliaferro, Jeffery W., "Security Seeking Under Anarchy: Defensive Realism Revisited" International Security 25:3 (2000/01): 128-161

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Waltz, Kenneth N. Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw Hill (1979)