Publius Quinctilius Varus

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Varus menerima pemimpin-pemimpin Jermanik

Publius Quinctilius Varus (46 SM di Kremona, Republik Romawi – 15 September 9 M di dekat Kalkriese, Jerman) adalah seorang jenderal dan politikus Romawi pada masa kekuasaan Kaisar Romawi yang pertama, Agustus. Varus dikenang dalam sejarah sebagai jenderal yang mengalami kekalahan besar dalam Pertempuran Hutan Teutoburg melawan suku-suku Jermanik, sehingga Romawi kehilangan tiga legiun sekaligus dan Varus pun bunuh diri.

Latar belakang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Varus terlahir dengan latar belakang gens Quinctilia. Walaupun ia terlahir sebagai seorang patrician, keluarganya bukanlah keluarga yang kaya.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • J. R. Abdale, Four days in September: The Battle of Teutoburg (Google eBook), Trafford Publishing, 2013
  • M. Lightman & B. Lightman, A to Z of Ancient Greek and Roman Women, Infobase Publishing, 2008
  • R. Seager, Tiberius (Google eBook), John Wiley & Sons, 2008
  • Rome's Greatest Defeat: Massacre in the Teutoburg Forest (Hardcover) by Adrian Murdoch, Hardcover: 256 pages, Publisher: Sutton Publishing (June 14, 2006), ISBN 0-7509-4015-8, ISBN 978-0-7509-4015-3
  • B. Severy, Augustus and the Family at the Birth of the Roman Empire, Routledge, 2004
  • The Battle That Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of the Legions in the Teutoburg Forest by Peter S. Wells, W. W. Norton & Company, October 2003, ISBN 0-393-02028-2, ISBN 978-0-393-02028-1
  • A Roman Encyclopedia by Matthew Bunson, 1995 Oxford Paperback Reference
  • R. Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy, Oxford University Press, 1989
  • Compendium of Roman History (Res gestae divi Augusti) by Velleius Paterculus, Harvard University Press; 1924. Brief mention of the Varus Disaster by the author, who was serving as a staff officer with Tiberius in Pannonia at the time.
  • The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, Modern Library
  • Annals by Tacitus (various editions). Summarizes reports of later Romans who found the battlefield.
  • The Twelve Caesars, Suetonius, translated by Robert Graves, 1957, Penguin Books; Also available from Project Gutenberg: The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Complete