Pra-Adamit

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Hipotesis pra-Adam atau pra-adamisme adalah keyakinan teologi bahwa manusia (atau makhluk non-manusia dan cerdas) telah ada sebelum tokoh kitab suci Adam. Sehingga, pra-adamisme berbeda dari keyakinan Yudeo-Kristen konvensional bahwa Adam adalah manusia pertama. Pendukung hipotesis tersebut dikenal sebagai "pra-Adamit", bersama dengan manusia yang mereka yakini telah ada sebelum Adam.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Duncan, Isabella (1860). Pre-Adamite man : or, the story of our old planet & its inhabitants, told by Scripture & science.. London : Saunders, Otley, and Co. (Originally published anonymously, but known subsequently that the author was the wife of George John C. Duncan, the son of Henry Duncan.)
  • Flood, Gavin (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21535-2
  • Frederickson, George M. (1987). The Black Image in the White Mind. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6188-6
  • Graves, Joseph L. (2003). The Emperor's New Clothes: Biological Theories of Race at the Millennium. Newark, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3302-3
  • Haynes, Stephen R. (2002). Noah's Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514279-9
  • Harvey, Paul (2005). Freedom's Coming : Religious Culture and the Shaping of the South from the Civil War through the Civil Rights Era. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-2901-3
  • Livingstone, David N. (2008). Adam’s ancestors : race, religion, and the politics of human origins. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8813-7.
  • Livingstone, David N. (1 March 2011). Adam's Ancestors: Race, Religion, and the Politics of Human Origins. JHU Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-0143-0. 
  • Popkin, Richard Henry (1987). Isaac La Peyrère (1596-1676): His Life, Work, and Influence. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-08157-7. 
  • Popkin, Richard Henry (1992). Third Force in Seventeenth-Century Thought. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09324-9
  • Smith, Christian (2003). The Secular Revolution. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23000-0
  • Swain, Carol M. (2002). The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80886-3
  • Almond, Philip C. (1999). Adam and Eve in Seventeenth-Century Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66076-9
  • Barkun, Michael (1996). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press. ISBN 0-8078-4638-4

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