Pertempuran Alam el Halfa

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Pertempuran Alam el Halfa terjadi antara 30 Agustus dan 5 September 1942 di selatan El Alamein pada Kampanye Gurun Barat saat Perang Dunia Kedua. Panzerarmee Afrika—sebuah pasukan Jerman-Italia yang dikomandani oleh Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel—berupaya menyerang Tentara Kedelapan Britania , yang dikomandani oleh Bernard Montgomery. Dalam serangan Blok Poros utama terakhir (Operasi Brandung) dari Kampanye Gurun Barat, Rommel berencana untuk mengalahkan Tentara Kedelapan Britania sebelum Sekutu membuat kemenangan Blok Poros di Afrika menjadi tidak memungkinkan.

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Kutipan
  1. ^ Naveh (1997), p. 149
  2. ^ a b c d e f Watson (2007), p. 14
  3. ^ Buffetaut pp.90–91

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barr, N. (2005). Pendulum of War: The Three Battles of Alamein. Woodstock: Overlook Press. ISBN 1585676551. 
  • Buffetaut, Yves (1995). Operation Supercharge-La seconde bataille d'El Alamein [Operation Supercharge: The Second Battle of El Alamein]. Les grandes batailles de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Collection hors-série Militaria (dalam bahasa french) (16). Paris: Histoire Et Collections. OCLC 464158829. 
  • Cappellano, Filippo (2012). Italian Medium Tanks: 1939–45. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84908-775-9. 
  • Carver, Michael (1962). El Alamein. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 1-84022-220-4. 
  • Conetta, Carl; Knight, Charles; Unterseher, Lutz (September 1997). "Defensive Military Structures in Action: Historical Examples". Originally published in Confidence-Building Defense: A Comprehensive Approach to Security & Stability in the New Era, Study Group on Alternative Security Policy and Project on Defense Alternatives, Commonwealth Institute, Cambridge, MA., May 1994. OCLC 45377322. 
  • Cox, Sebastian; Gray, Peter (2002). Air Power History: Turning Points from Kitty Hawk to Kosovo. Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-8257-8. 
  • Hinsley, F. H.; Thomas, E. E.; Ransom, C. F. G.; Knight, R. C. (1981). British Intelligence in the Second World War. Its influence on Strategy and Operations II. London: HMSO. ISBN 0-11-630934-2. 
  • Lightbody, Bradley (2004). The Second World War: Ambitions to Nemesis. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22404-7. 
  • Murphy, W. E. (1966) [1966]. 2nd New Zealand Divisional Artillery. Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–1945. Wellington: War History Branch. OCLC 226971027. 
  • Naveh, Shimon (1997) [1991]. In Pursuit of Military Excellence; The Evolution of Operational Theory. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4727-6. 
  • Playfair, Major-General I. S. O.; with Flynn RN, Captain F. C.; Molony, Brigadier C. J. C. & Gleave, Group Captain T. P. (2004) [1st. pub. HMSO 1960]. Butler, J. R. M., ed. The Mediterranean and Middle East: British Fortunes reach their Lowest Ebb (September 1941 to September 1942). History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series III. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-067-X. 
  • Fraser, David (1993). Knight's Cross: A Life of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-638384-X. 
  • Roberts, Major-General G. P. B.; Bayerlein, Generalleutnant Fritz. Basil Liddell Hart, ed. "U.S. Combat Studies Institute Battle Report: Alam Halfa". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 21 October 2007. Diakses tanggal 5 November 2007. 
  • Walker, Ronald (1967). "Chapter 11, Summary of the Battle". Alam Halfa and Alamein. The Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939–1945. New Zealand Historical Publications Branch, Wellington. hlmn. 165–181. OCLC 893102. 
  • Watson, Bruce Allen (2007) [1999]. Exit Rommel. Mechanicsburg PA: Stackpole. ISBN 978-0-8117-3381-6. 

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