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Peperangan Tiga Kerajaan

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Peperangan Tiga Kerajaan[a], yang terkadang dikenal sebagai Peperangan Saudara Britania[b], membentuk serangkaian konflik yang terjadi di Inggris, Irlandia dan Skotlandia antara 1639 dan 1651. Perang Saudara Inggris telah menjadi konflik paling terkenal karena meliputi eksekusi raja kerajaan tersebut, Charles I, oleh Parlemen Inggris pada 1649.

Peperangan tersebut meliputi Peperangan Uskup-uskup tahun 1639 dan 1640, Perang Saudara Skotlandia tahun 1644–45; Pemberontakan Irlandia 1641, Konfederasi Irlandia, 1642–49 dan Penaklukan Irlandia oleh Cromwellian pada 1649 (secara kolektif disebut Perang Sebelas Tahun atau Peperangan Konfederasi Irlandia); dan Peperangan Saudara Inggris Pertama, Kedua dan Ketiga masing-masing pada tahun 1642–46, 1648–49 dan 1650–51.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Ian Gentles, citing John Morrill, states, "there is no stable, agreed title for the events.... They have been variously labeled the Great Rebellion, the Puritan Revolution, the English Civil War, the English Revolution and most recently, the Wars of the Three Kingdoms." (Gentles 2007, hlm. 3)
  2. ^ Although the term Wars of the Three Kingdoms is not new, having been used by James Heath in his book A Brief Chronicle of all the Chief Actions so fatally Falling out in the three Kingdoms, first published in 1662,[3] recent publications' tendency to name these linked conflicts the term represents a trend by modern historians aiming to take a unified overview rather than treating some of the conflicts as mere background to the English Civil War. Some, such as Carlton and Gaunt have labelled them the British Civil Wars.[4][5][6]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b "ENGLISH CIVIL WARS". History.com. Diakses tanggal 4 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Second and third English Civil Wars, "While it is notoriously difficult to determine the number of casualties in any war, it has been estimated that the conflict in England and Wales claimed about 85,000 lives in combat, with a further 127,000 noncombat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)."
  3. ^ Raymond 2005, hlm. 281.
  4. ^ Carlton 1994.
  5. ^ Gaunt 1997.
  6. ^ Trevor Royle published his 2004 book under different titles. In the UK it was called Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms while in the US it was called The British Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, 1638–1660 (Royle 2004).

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  •  Atkinson, Charles Francis (1911), "Great Rebellion", dalam Chisholm, Hugh, Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 (edisi ke-11), Cambridge University Press, hlm. 403–421 
  • Carlton, Charles (1994) [1992], Going to the wars: the experience of the British civil wars, 1638–1651, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-10391-6 .
  • Gentles, Ian (2007), "The English Revolution and the Wars in the Three Kingdoms, 1638–1652", dalam Scott, H. M.; Collins, B. W., Modern Wars in Perspective, Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman 
  • Gaunt, Peter (1997), The British Wars 1637–1651, UK: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-12966-4 . An 88-page pamphlet.
  • Jane, Lionel Cecil (1905), The coming of Parliament; England from 1350 to 1660, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons etc, hlm. 376–377 
  • Raymond, Joad (2005), The invention of the newspaper: English newsbooks, 1641–1649, Oxford University Press, hlm. 281, ISBN 9780199282340 
  • Royle, Trevor (2004), Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, UK: Little Brown, ISBN 0-316-86125-1  alternatively The British Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, 1638–1660, USA: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, ISBN 0-312-29293-7 
  • Worden, Blair (1986), Stuart England (edisi ke-illustrated), Phaidon 

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kepulauan Britania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Inggris[sunting | sunting sumber]

Irlandia[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Lenihan, Pádraig (2000). Confederate Catholics at War, 1641–1649. Cork: Cork University Press. ISBN 1-85918-244-5. 
  • Ó hAnnracháin, Tadhg (2002). Catholic Reformation in Ireland: The Mission of Rinuccini, 1645–1649. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820891-X. 
  • Ó Siochrú, Micheál (1999). Confederate Ireland, 1642–1649: A Constitutional and Political Analysis. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-400-6. 
  • Ó Siochrú, Micheál (ed.) (2001). Kingdoms in Crisis: Ireland in the 1640s. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-535-5. 
  • Perceval-Maxwell, M. (1994). The Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 0-7171-2173-9. 
  • Wheeler, James Scott (1999). Cromwell in Ireland. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 0-7171-2884-9. 

Skotlandia[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Stevenson, David (1973). The Scottish Revolution, 1637–1644: The Triumph of the Covenanters. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-6302-6. 
  • Stevenson, David (1980). Alasdair MacColla and the Highland Problem in the Seventeenth Century. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 0-85976-055-3. 

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]