Penda dari Mercia

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Penda
Jendela kaca patri yang menggambarkan kematian Penda di Pertempuran Winwaed, Katedral Worcester
Masa kekuasaan skt. 626 – 655 M
Lahir skt. 606 SM
Wafat 15 November 655 SM
Tempat wafat Diduga Cock Beck yang sekarang Yorkshire di Pertempuran Winwaed
Pendahulu Cearl dari Mercia
Pengganti Peada dari Mercia
Pasangan dari Cynewise
Anak Peada
Wulfar
Æthelred
Merewalh
Cyneburh
Cyneswith
Ayah Pybba
Agama Pagan

Penda (meninggal 15 November 655)[1] merupakan seorang Raja Mercia abad ke-7, kerajaan Anglo-Saxon di tempat yang sekarang adalah The Midlands. Paganisme pada saat Kekristenan menguasai banyak kerajaan Anglo-Saxon, Penda mengambil alih Lembah Severn pada tahun 628 setelah Pertempuran Cirencester sebelum berpartisipasi di dalam kekalahan Kerajaan Northumbria raja Edwin di Pertempuran Hatfield Chase pada tahun 633.[2]

Sembilan tahun kemudian, ia mengalahkan dan membunuh penerus Edwin, Oswald, pada Pertempuran Maserfield; dari titik ini ia mungkin adalah penguasa Anglo-Saxon yang paling berkuasa saat ini, meletakkan fondasi untuk supremasi Mercia atas Heptarkhi Anglo-Saxon. Ia berulang kali mengalahkan Ēast Engla dan mengusir Cenwalh raja Wessex ke pengasingan selama tiga tahun. Ia terus berperang melawan Bernicia dari Northumbria. Tiga belas tahun setelah Maserfield, ia mengalami kekalahan telak oleh pengganti dan saudara Oswald, Ōswīg, dan terbunuh di Pertempuran Winwaed dalam kampanye terakhir melawan Bernicia.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Manuscript A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives the year as 655. Bede also gives the year as 655 and specifies a date, 15 November. R. L. Poole (Studies in Chronology and History, 1934) put forward the theory that Bede began his year in September, and consequently November 655 would actually fall in 654; Frank Stenton also dated events accordingly in his Anglo-Saxon England (1943).1 Others have accepted Bede's given dates as meaning what they appear to mean, considering Bede's year to have begun on 25 December or 1 January (see S. Wood, 1983: "Bede's Northumbrian dates again"). The historian D. P. Kirby suggested the year 656 as a possibility, alongside 655, in case the dates given by Bede are off by one year (see Kirby's "Bede and Northumbrian Chronology", 1963). The Annales Cambriae gives the year as 657. Annales Cambriae at Fordham University
  2. ^ Bede gives the year of Hatfield as 633 (along with the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle); if the theory that Bede's years began in September is employed (see Note 1), then October 633 would actually be in 632, and this dating has sometimes been observed by modern historians such as Stenton (see Note 8). Kirby suggested that the year may have actually been 634, accounting for the possibility that Bede's dates are one year early (see Note 1). Bede gives the specific date of Hatfield as 12 October; Manuscript E of the Chronicle (see Note 10) gives it as 14 October.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, translated and edited by M. J. Swanton (1996), paperback, ISBN 0-415-92129-5.
  • S. Bassett (ed.), The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms (1989).
  • Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731), Book II and Book III.
  • A. Breeze, "The Battle of the Uinued and the River Went, Yorkshire", Northern History, Vol. 41, Issue 2 (September 2004), pages 377–83.
  • Filppula, M., Klemola, J., Paulasto, H., and Pitkanen, H., (2008) English and Celtic in Contact, Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26602-5
  • D. J. V. Fisher, The Anglo-Saxon Age (1973), Longman, hardback, ISBN 0-582-48277-1, pages 66 and 117–118.
  • Henry of Huntingdon, Historia Anglorum, translated by D. Greenway (1997), Oxford University Press.
  • N. J. Higham, The Convert Kings: Power and Religious Affiliation in Early Anglo-Saxon England (1997), pages 219, 240 and 241.
  • The Historia Brittonum, Chapters 60 and 65.
  • D. P. Kirby, The Earliest English Kings (1991), second edition (2000), Routledge, paperback, ISBN 0-415-24211-8.
  • J. O. Prestwich, "King Æthelhere and the battle of the Winwaed," The English Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 326 (January 1968), pages 89–95.
  • John Rhys, Celtic Folklore: Welsh and Manx (Oxford University Press 1901).
  • P. Sims-Williams, Religion and Literature [in Western England, 600–800 (Cambridge 1990).
  • C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (ed.), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995, reprinted 1996), Paul Watkins, paperback.
  • F. M. Stenton, Anglo-Saxon England (1943), third edition (1971), Oxford University Press, paperback (1989, reissued 1998), ISBN 0-19-282237-3.
  • Tyler, Damian (2005) An Early Mercian Hegemony: Penda and Overkingship in the Seventh Century, in Midland History, Volume XXX, (ed. J. Rohrkasten). Published by the University of Birmingham.
  • A. W. Wade-Evans, The Saxones in the "Excidium Britanniæ", The Celtic Review, Vol. 10, No. 40 (June 1916), pp. 322–333.
  • Ann Williams, Kingship and Government in Pre-Conquest England (MacMillan Press 1999)
  • M. Ziegler, "The Politics of Exile in Early Northumbria", The Heroic Age, Issue 2, Autumn/Winter 1999.

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