Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Great Seal of the United States.
Judul lengkap The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Singkatan PPACA
Nama panggilan Affordable Care Act, Health Insurance Reform, Healthcare Reform, Obamacare
Ditetapkan oleh Kongres Amerika Serikat ke-111
Berlaku 23 Maret 2010
Kebanyakan ketetapan utama diberlakukan pada Januari 2014; ketetapan sisanya pada tahun 2020
Kutipan
Hukum Pidana 111–148
Stat. 124 Stat. 119 melalui 124 Stat. 1025 (906 halaman)
Riwayat undang-undang
  • Diperkenalkan di DPR dengan nama the "Service Members Home Ownership Tax Act of 2009" (H.R. 3590) oleh Charles Rangel (DNY) pada 17 September 2009
  • Pertimbangan komite oleh: Ways and Means
  • Disetujui DPR pada 8 Oktober 2009 (416–0)
  • Disetujui Senat dengan nama "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" pada 24 Desember 2009 (60–39) dengan amendemen
  • DPR menyetujui amendemen Senat pada 21 Maret 2010 (219–212)
  • Disahkan oleh Presiden Barack Obama pada 23 Maret 2010
Amendemen mayor
Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010
Comprehensive 1099 Taxpayer Protection and Repayment of Exchange Subsidy Overpayments Act of 2011
Kasus Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA),[1] commonly called Obamacare[2][3] atau hukum layanan kesehatan federal, adalah sebuah hukum federal yang disahkan oleh Presiden Barack Obama pada tanggal 23 Maret 2010. Bersama Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, UU ini mengusung perombakan regulasi sistem layanan kesehatan Amerika Serikat terbesar sejak disahkannya Medicare dan Medicaid tahun 1965.[4]

PPACA lebih ditujukan untuk mengurangi jumlah warga Amerika Serikat tak terasuransikan dan seluruh biaya layanan kesehatan. UU ini menyediakan berbagai macam mekanisme—termasuk mandat, subsidi, dan kredit pajak—untuk para pengusaha dan individu demi meningkatkan tingkat cakupan asuransi.[5][6] Reformasi lain bertujuan memperbaiki hasil layanan kesehatan dan menyederhanakan penyaluran layanan kesehatan. PPACA mensyaratkan perusahaan-perusahaan asuransi mencakup semua pendaftar dan menawarkan nilai yang sama tanpa melihat kondisi tak jelas atau jenis kelamin.[7][8] Congressional Budget Office memperkirakan PPACA akan mengurangi defisit selanjutnya[9] dan anggaran Medicare.[10]

Pada tanggal 28 Jun 2012, Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat mendukung konstitusionalitas sebagian besar isi PPACA dalam kasus National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius.[11][12]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Pub.L. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119, yang ditandai telah diamendemen di sejumlah pasal-pasal tentang Internal Revenue Code dan di 42 U.S.C.
  2. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama CNN20120625Obamacare
  3. ^ Holan, Angie D. (March 20, 2012). "RomneyCare & ObamaCare: Can you tell the difference?". PolitiFact.com. Tampa Bay Times. Diakses tanggal August 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ James Vicini and Jonathan Stempel (June 28, 2012). "US top court upholds healthcare law in Obama triumph". Reuters. 
  5. ^ Pear, Robert (July 7, 2012). "Health Law Critics Prepare to Battle Over Insurance Exchange Subsidies". New York Times. Diakses tanggal July 7, 2012. 
  6. ^ Krugman, Paul (January 31, 2010). "Krugman calls Senate health care bill similar to law in Massachusetts". PolitiFact.com. Tampa Bay Times. Diakses tanggal August 29, 2012. 
  7. ^ Hearst, Steven R. (June 28, 2012). "Supreme Court Upholds Heart of Obama Health Care Law Seeking to Cover 30 Million Uninsured". The Gazette. Diakses tanggal June 30, 2012. 
  8. ^ "ObamaCare Survives the Supreme Court: 5 Takeaways". The Week. June 28, 2012. Diakses tanggal June 30, 2012. 
  9. ^ Elmendorf, Douglas W. (March 30, 2011). "CBO's Analysis of the Major Health Care Legislation Enacted in March 2010" (pdf). Congressional Budget Office. Diakses tanggal July 15, 2012. 
  10. ^ Elmendorf, Douglas W. (June 2011). "CBO's 2011 Long-Term Budget Outlook" (pdf). Congressional Budget Office. p. 44. Through those changes and numerous others, the 2010 legislation significantly decreased Medicare outlays relative to what they would have been under prior law. 
  11. ^ Barrett, Paul M. (June 28, 2012). "Supreme Court Supports Obamacare, Bolsters Obama". BloombergBusinessweek. Diakses tanggal June 30, 2012. 
  12. ^ National Post Wire Services (June 28, 2012). "Obamacare upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court". National Post. Diakses tanggal June 30, 2012. , termasuk ketetapan utama yang mewajibkan semua warga Amerika Serikat membeli asuransi kesehatan.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dokumen awal CBO
  • Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act, Incorporating The Manager's Amendment − December 19, 2009
    • Effects Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act On The Federal Budget And The Balance In The Hospital Insurance Trust Fund (December 23, 2009)
    • Estimated Effect Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act (Incorporating The Manager's Amendment) On The Hospital Insurance Trust Fund (December 23, 2009)
  • Base Analysis – H.R. 3590, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, − November 18, 2009.
    (The Additional and/or Related CBO reporting that follows can be accessed from the above link)
    • Estimated Distribution Of Individual Mandate Penalties (November 20, 2009)
    • Estimated Effects On Medicare Advantage Enrollment And Benefits Not Covered By Medicare (November 21, 2009)
    • Estimated Effects On The Status Of The Hospital Insurance Trust Fund (November 21, 2009)
    • Estimated Average Premiums Under Current Law (December 5, 2009)
    • Additional Information About Employment-Based Coverage (December 7, 2009)
    • Budgetary Treatment Of Proposals To Regulate Medical Loss Ratios (December 13, 2009)
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Perkiraan dampak P.L. 111-148
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Perkiraan dampak H.R. 3590

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Salinan RUU