Partai Pantera Hitam

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Partai Pantera Hitam
Pemimpin Huey P. Newton
Didirikan 1966; 51 tahun lalu (1966)
Dibubarkan 1982 (1982)
Ideologi
Posisi politik Kiri jauh
Warna resmi Hitam, biru terang, hijau
Politik Amerika Serikat
Pemilihan umum

Partai Pantera Hitam (bahasa Inggris: Black Panther Party) atau BPP (aslinya Partai Pantera Hitam untuk Pertahanan Diri) adalah sebuah organisasi sosialis dan nasionalis kulit hitam revolusioner[1][2] yang aktif di Amerika Serikat dari 1966 sampai 1982, dengan cabang-cabang internasional beroperasi di Britania Raya pada awal 1970an,[3] dan di Aljazair dari 1969 sampai 1972.[4]

Saat pembentukannya pada 15 Oktober[5] 1966, praktek inti Partai Pantera Hitam adalah penjaga warga bersenjatanya untuk memantau perilaku para perwira polisi dan menantang kebrutalan polisi di Oakland, California. Pada 1969, program-program sosial masyarakat menjadi aktivitas inti dari para anggota partai.[6] Partai Pantera Hitam melembagakan berbagai program sosial masyarakat, terutama Free Breakfast for Children Programs, dan klinik kesehatan masyarakat.[7][8][9] Partai tersebut memiliki jumlah anggota terbesar dan membuat dampak terbesar di Oakland-San Francisco Bay Area, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, dan Philadelphia.[10]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Joseph, Peniel (2006). Waiting 'Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America. Henry Holt. p. 219. 
  2. ^ Van Deburg, William L.. New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975. University of Chicago Press. p. 155. 
  3. ^ Brown, Mark (27 December 2013). "Britain's black power movement is at risk of being forgotten, say historians". The Guardian. Diakses tanggal 2 January 2017. 
  4. ^ Meghelli, Samir (2009), ""From Harlem to Algiers: Transnational Solidarities Between the African American Freedom Movement and Algeria, 1962-1978"", di Marable, Manning, Black Routes to Islam, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 99–119. 
  5. ^ "October 15, 1966: The Black Panther Party Is Founded". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Diakses tanggal 2015-12-15. 
  6. ^ Austin 2006; Bloom and Martin, 2013; March, 2010; Joseph, 2006.
  7. ^ Pearson 152.
  8. ^ Bloom and Martin, chapter 7.
  9. ^ Nelson, Alondra (2011). Body and Soul: The Black Panther Party and the Fight against Medical Discrimination. University of Minnesota Press. 
  10. ^ "Mapping the Black Panther Party in Key Cities". Mapping American Social Movements. 

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Austin, Curtis J. (2006). Up Against the Wall: Violence in the Making and Unmaking of the Black Panther Party. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1-55728-827-5
  • Alkebulan, Paul. Survival Pending Revolution: The History of the Black Panther Party (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2007)
  • Barker, Thomas. "Black and White: The Liberal Media and the Ideology of Black Victimhood". CounterPunch, February 13, 2015.
  • Blackmon, Janiece L. (2008). I Am Because We Are: Africana Womanism as a Vehicle of Empowerment and Influence. Blacksburg: Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 
  • Bloom, Joshua; Martin, Jr., Waldo E. (2012). Black against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party. University of California Press. p. 315. ISBN 9780520953543. Diakses tanggal 2015-12-16. 
  • Brown, Elaine (1993). A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story. Anchor. ISBN 0-679-41944-6. 
  • Churchill, Ward and Vander Wall, Jim (1988). Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret War Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement. South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-294-6
  • Dooley, Brian (1998). Black and Green: The Fight for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland and Black America. Pluto Press.
  • Forbes, Flores A. (2006). Will You Die With Me? My Life and the Black Panther Party. Atria Books. ISBN 0-7434-8266-2
  • Hilliard, David, and Cole, Lewis (1993). This Side of Glory: The Autobiography of David Hilliard and the Story of the Black Panther Party. Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 0-316-36421-5
  • Lewis, John (1998). Walking with the Wind. Simon and Schuster, p. 353. ISBN 0-684-81065-4
  • Lazerow, Jama and Williams, Yohuru (eds) (2006). In Search of the Black Panther Party: New Perspectives on a Revolutionary Movement. Durham: Duke University Press, . ISBN 978-0-8223-3890-1
  • Murch, Donna. Living for the City: Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California, University of North Carolina, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8078-7113-3
  • Pearson, Hugh (1994), The Shadow of the Panther: Huey Newton and the Price of Black Power in America, De Capo Press. ISBN 0-201-48341-6
  • Rhodes, Jane. Framing the Black Panthers: The Spectacular Rise of a Black Power Icon (New York: The New Press, 2007).
  • Shames, Stephen. "The Black Panthers", Aperture, 2006. A photographic essay of the organization, allegedly suppressed due to Spiro Agnew's intervention in 1970.
  • Swirski, Peter. "1960s The Return of the Black Panther: Irving Wallace's The Man". Ars Americana Ars Politica. Montreal, London: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7735-3766-8

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