Orang Amerika Serikat

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Orang Amerika Serikat
Flag of the United States.svg
Jumlah populasi
ca.331.4 juta[1]
(Sensus Amerika Serikat 2020)
Map of the American Diaspora in the World.svg
Daerah dengan populasi signifikan
 Meksiko738,100–1,000,000[2][3]
 Kanada316,350–1,000,000[4][5]
 India2,694–700,000[6]
 Filipina220,000–600,000[7][8]
 Jerman324,000[9]
 Brasil260,000
 Prancis200,000[10]
 Israel200,000[11][12]
 Britania Raya197,143 (foreign born only)[13]
 Korea Selatan120,000–158,000[14]
 Kosta Rika120,000–130,000[15]
 Tiongkok110,000[16]
 Kolombia60,000[17]
 Hong Kong60,000[18]
 Jepang59,172-153,389[19][20]
 Australia56,276[21]
 Pakistan52,486[22]
 Italia50,000[23]
 Uni Emirat Arab50,000[24]
 Haiti45,000[25]
 Arab Saudi40,000[26]
 Argentina37,000[27]
 Norwegia33,509[28]
 Bahama30,000[29]
 Rusia30,000[butuh rujukan]
 Lebanon25,000[30]
 Panama25,000[31]
 Dominika24,457[32]
 Spanyol22,082[33]
 Chili19,161[34]
 El Salvador19,000[35]
 Selandia Baru21,462[36]
 Honduras15,000[37]
 Polandia2,483–14,000[38]
 Trinidad dan Tobago11,500[39]
 Republik Tiongkok10,645[40]
 Austria10,175[41]
 Denmark9,400[42]
 Ceko8,763[43]
 Bermuda8,000[44]
Bahasa
Terutama bahasa Inggris Amerika, selain itu terdapat juga bahasa Spanyol dan bahasa lainnya
Agama
Terutama Kristen (Protestan, Katolik, dan denominasi lainnya) [45]
Berbagai agama non-Kristen (Yahudi dan lainnya)[45]
Tidak beragama

Orang Amerika Serikat (bahasa Inggris: Americans) adalah warga negara Amerika Serikat.[46] Negara tersebut adalah tempat dari orang-orang dari berbagai asal muasal suku bangsa. Akibatnya, beberapa orang Amerika tak menyetarakan kebangsaan mereka dengan etnisitas, tetapi dengan kewarganegaraan dan persekutuan.[46] Meskipun warga negara terdiri dari mayoritas orang Amerika Serikat, pemukin non-warga negara, warga negara ganda, dan ekspatriat tak mengklaim identitas Amerika Serikat.[47]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count". United States Census. Diakses tanggal April 26, 2021.  The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  2. ^ "People live in Mexico, INEGI, 2010". 
  3. ^ Smith, Dr. Claire M. (August 2010). "These are our Numbers: Civilian Americans Overseas and Voter Turnout" (PDF). OVF Research Newsletter. Overseas Vote Foundation. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal October 24, 2013. Diakses tanggal December 11, 2012. Previous research indicates that the number of U.S. Americans living in Mexico is around 1 million, with 600,000 of those living in Mexico City. 
  4. ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. June 10, 2010. Diakses tanggal February 17, 2013. Ethnic origins Americans Total responses 316,350 
  5. ^ Barrie McKenna (June 27, 2012). "Tax amnesty offered to Americans in Canada". The Globe and Mail. Ottawa. Diakses tanggal December 17, 2012. There are roughly a million Americans in Canada – many with little or no ties to the United States. 
  6. ^ Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (December 2017). Table 1. Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area, region, country, or a area of destination, 1990-2017 (Laporan). United Nations. International Migration. Diakses tanggal 29 June 2019. HV1731 2,694 
    United Nations Population Division (28 February 2018). Origins and Destinations of the World's Migrants, 1990-2017 (Laporan). Pew Research Center. hlm. Global Attitudes & Trends. Diakses tanggal 29 June 2019. United States <10,000 
    Gottipati, Sruthi (8 February 2012). "Expats Flock to India Seeking Jobs, Excitement". The New York Times. Diakses tanggal 20 March 2019. While 35,973 U.S. citizens (not including those eligible for special visas available for Americans of Indian origin) registered in 2008, 41,938 did so the following year, according to the latest figures available with the Ministry of Home Affairs. 
    White House (June 26, 2017). "The United States and India — Prosperity Through Partnership". whitehouse.gov. Diakses tanggal March 19, 2019 – via National Archives. Today, nearly 4 million Indian-Americans reside in the United States and over 700,000 U.S. citizens live in India. Last year, the United States Government issued nearly one million visas to Indian citizens, and facilitated 1.7 million visits by Indian citizens to the United States. 
  7. ^ Evan S. Medeiros; Keith Crane; Eric Heginbotham; Norman D. Levin; Julia F. Lowell (November 7, 2008). Pacific Currents: The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to Chinaâ€TMs Rise. Rand Corporation. hlm. 115. ISBN 978-0-8330-4708-3. An estimated 4 million Filipino-Americans, most of whom are U.S. citizens or dual citizens, live in the United States, and over 250,000 U.S. citizens live in the Philippines. 
    "New U.S. ambassador to PH aims to 'strengthen' ties". CNN Philippines. Metro Manila. December 2, 2016. Diakses tanggal March 20, 2017. According to his figures, there are about 4 million Filipino-Americans residing in the U.S., and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines. 
    Lozada, Aaron (December 2, 2016). "New U.S. envoy: Relationship with PH 'most important'". ABS-CBN News. Manila. Diakses tanggal March 20, 2017. According to Kim, the special relations between the U.S. and the Philippines is evident in the "four million Filipino-Americans who are residing in the United States and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines." 
    International Business Publications, USA (August 1, 2013). Philippines Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. Int'l Business Publications. hlm. 29. ISBN 978-1-4387-7078-9. An estimated 600,000 Americans visit the Philippines each year, while an estimated 300,000 reside in-country. 
    Kapoor, Kanupriya; Dela Cruz, Enrico (17 October 2016). "Americans in Philippines jittery as Duterte rails against United States". Reuters. Olongapo. Diakses tanggal 20 April 2018. About four million people of Philippine ancestry live in the United States, one of its largest minorities, and about 220,000 Americans, many of them military veterans, live in the Philippines. An additional 650,000 visit each year, according to U.S. State Department figures. 
    "FACT SHEET: United States-Philippines Bilateral Relations". U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. United States Department of State. 28 April 2014. Diakses tanggal 20 April 2018. Around 350,000 Americans reside in the Philippines, and approximately 600,000 U.S. citizens visit the country each year. 
  8. ^ Cooper, Matthew (November 15, 2013). "Why the Philippines Is America's Forgotten Colony". National Journal. Diakses tanggal January 28, 2015. c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief. 
  9. ^ "BiB - Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung - Pressemitteilungen - Zuwanderung aus außereuropäischen Ländern fast verdoppelt". www.bib-demografie.de. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 9, 2017. Diakses tanggal March 2, 2017. 
  10. ^ "Americans in France". Embassy of the United States, Paris. United States Department of State. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 18, 2015. Diakses tanggal April 26, 2015. Today, although no official figure is available it is estimated that over 150,000 American citizens reside in France, making France one of the top 10 destinations for American expatriates. 
  11. ^ Daphna Berman (January 23, 2008). "Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!". Haaretz. Diakses tanggal December 11, 2012. According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories. 
  12. ^ Michele Chabin (March 19, 2012). "In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship". USA Today. Jerusalem. Diakses tanggal December 11, 2012. Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free. 
  13. ^ Simon Rogers (May 26, 2011). "The UK's foreign-born population: see where people live and where they're from". The Guardian. Diakses tanggal February 17, 2013. County of birth and county of nationality. United States of America 197 143 
  14. ^ "U.S. Citizen Services". Embassy of the United States Seoul, Korea. United States Department of State. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal November 30, 2012. Diakses tanggal December 11, 2012. This website is updated daily and should be your primary resource when applying for a passport, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, notarization, or any of the other services we offer to the estimated 120,000 U.S. citizens traveling, living, and working in Korea. 
    "North Korea propaganda video depicts invasion of South Korea, US hostage taking". Advertiser. Agence France-Presse. March 22, 2013. Diakses tanggal March 23, 2013. According to official immigration figures, South Korea has an American population of more than 130,000 civilians and 28,000 troops. 
  15. ^ "Background Note: Costa Rica". Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. United States Department of State. April 9, 2012. Diakses tanggal December 11, 2012. Over 130,000 private American citizens, including many retirees, reside in the country and more than 700,000 American citizens visit Costa Rica annually. 
    Bloom, Laura Begley (31 July 2018). "More Americans are fleeing to cheap faraway places". New York Post. Diakses tanggal 19 February 2020. Approximately 120,000 citizens live in this stable country, many as retirees, according to the State Department. 
  16. ^ Calum Macleod (November 18, 2005). "A guide to success in China, by Americans who live there". Diakses tanggal May 24, 2020. 
  17. ^ "Colombia (03/28/13)". United States Department of State. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 20, 2013. Diakses tanggal February 27, 2014. Based on Colombian statistics, an estimated 60,000 U.S. citizens reside in Colombia and 280,000 U.S. citizens travel, study and do business in Colombia each year. 
  18. ^ "Hong Kong (10/11/11)". Previous Editions of Hong Kong Background Note. United States Department of State. October 11, 2011. Diakses tanggal December 11, 2012. There are some 1,400 U.S. firms, including 817 regional operations (288 regional headquarters and 529 regional offices), and over 60,000 American residents in Hong Kong. 
  19. ^ "令和元年末現在における在留外国人数について" (Excel). Immigration Services Agency of Japan. Diakses tanggal April 8, 2021. 
  20. ^ "在日米軍の施設・区域内外居住(人数・基準)" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2008-02-22. Diakses tanggal April 8, 2021. 
  21. ^ "ibid, Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia". Diakses tanggal October 19, 2014. 
  22. ^ Gishkori, Zahid (July 30, 2015). "Karachi has witnessed 43% decrease in target killing: Nisar". The Express Tribune. Diakses tanggal August 3, 2017. 52,486 Americans... are residing in [Pakistan], the interior minister added. 
  23. ^ Kelly Carter (May 17, 2005). "High cost of living crush Americans' dreams of Italian living". USA Today. Positano, Italy. Diakses tanggal December 17, 2012. Nearly 50,000 Americans lived in Italy at the end of 2003, according to Italy's immigration office. 
  24. ^ "UAE´s population – by nationality". BQ Magazine. April 12, 2015. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 11, 2015. Diakses tanggal June 13, 2015. 
  25. ^ McKinley Jr.; James C. (January 17, 2010). "For 45,000 Americans in Haiti, the Quake Was 'a Nightmare That's Not Ending'". The New York Times. Diakses tanggal February 27, 2015. 
  26. ^ "SAUDI-U.S. TRADE". Commerce Office. Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington D.C. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal September 13, 2012. Diakses tanggal February 14, 2012. Furthermore, there are approximately 40,000 Americans living and working in the Kingdom. 
  27. ^ "Argentina (03/12/12)". Previous Editions of Argentina Background Note. United States Department of State. March 12, 2012. Diakses tanggal December 24, 2012. The Embassy's Consular Section monitors the welfare and whereabouts of some 37,000 U.S. citizen residents of Argentina and more than 500,000 U.S. tourists each year. 
  28. ^ "Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background. January 1, 2010". Diakses tanggal October 19, 2014. 
  29. ^ "Bahamas, The (01/25/12)". Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. January 25, 2012. Diakses tanggal December 29, 2012. The countries share ethnic and cultural ties, especially in education, and The Bahamas is home to approximately 30,000 American residents. 
  30. ^ Kate King (July 18, 2006). "U.S. family: Get us out of Lebanon". CNN. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 6, 2012. Diakses tanggal February 14, 2012. About 350 of the estimated 25,000 American citizens in Lebanon had been flown to Cyprus from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut by nightfall Tuesday, Maura Harty, the assistant secretary of state for consular affairs, told reporters. 
  31. ^ "Panama (03/09)". Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. March 2009. Diakses tanggal December 17, 2012. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality. 
  32. ^ "IX Censo Nacional de Poblacion y Vivenda 2010" (PDF). hlm. 101. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal September 27, 2013. Diakses tanggal 2015-07-23. 
  33. ^ "Foreign population by sex, country of nationality and age (up to 85 and above)". Instituto Natcional de Estadistica (dalam bahasa Spanyol). 1 January 2007. Diakses tanggal 28 May 2018. Both genders 22,082 
  34. ^ S. Vedoya; V. Rivera (4 April 2018). "Gobierno cifra en más de un millón el número de inmigrantes que están en Chile". Latercera (dalam bahasa Spanyol). Diakses tanggal 20 April 2018. 
  35. ^ "El Salvador (01/10)". United States Department of State. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal April 13, 2014. Diakses tanggal April 11, 2014. More than 19,000 American citizens live and work full-time in El Salvador 
  36. ^ "North Americans: Facts and figures". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 
  37. ^ "Honduras (11/23/09)". Previous Editions of Honduras Background Note. United States Department of State. November 23, 2009. Diakses tanggal December 17, 2012. U.S.-Honduran ties are further strengthened by numerous private sector contacts, with an average of between 80,000 and 110,000 U.S. citizens visiting Honduras annually and about 15,000 Americans residing there. 
  38. ^ "Statistics/Poland/Valid documents/Tabular data/Year: 2019". Maps and statistics of migrants and Polish migration services. Government of Poland. 2019. Diakses tanggal 3 March 2020. United States of America 2019 2483 
    "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". Migration Policy Institute. 2017. Diakses tanggal 3 March 2020. 14,000 
  39. ^ "U.S. Relations With Trinidad and Tobago". U.S. Department of State (dalam bahasa Inggris). 15 February 2018. Diakses tanggal 20 March 2019. About 145,000 U.S. citizens visit Trinidad and Tobago on vacation or for business every year, and more than 11,500 American citizens are residents. 
  40. ^ "06-08 外僑居留人數 Foreign Residents". National Immigration Agency, MOI. Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interior. 2011. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal January 6, 2007. Diakses tanggal December 17, 2012. 
  41. ^ "STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Diakses tanggal October 19, 2014. 
  42. ^ "Folketalet, Amerikanere". statistikbanken.dk. 
  43. ^ "Foreigners by category of residence, sex, and citizenship as at 31 December 2016". czso.cz. 
  44. ^ "Bermuda (12/09/11)". Previous Editions of Bermuda Background Note. United States Department of State. December 9, 2011. Diakses tanggal December 29, 2012. An estimated 8,000 registered U.S. citizens live in Bermuda, many of them employed in the international business community. 
  45. ^ a b Luis Lug; Sandra Stencel; John Green; Gregory Smith; Dan Cox; Allison Pond; Tracy Miller; Elixabeth Podrebarac; Michelle Ralston (February 2008). "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey" (PDF). Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. Diakses tanggal February 12, 2012. 
  46. ^ a b Christine Barbour; Gerald C Wright (January 15, 2013). Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, 6th Edition The Essentials. CQ Press. hlm. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-4522-4003-9. Diakses tanggal January 6, 2015. Who Is An American? Native-born and naturalized citizens 
    Shklar, Judith N. (1991). American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press. hlm. 3–4. ISBN 9780674022164. Diakses tanggal December 17, 2012. 
    Slotkin, Richard (2001). "Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality". American Literary History. Oxford University Press. 13 (3): 469–498. doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. Diakses tanggal December 17, 2012. But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging. 
    Eder, Klaus; Giesen, Bernhard (2001). European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. Oxford University Press. hlm. 25–26. ISBN 9780199241200. Diakses tanggal February 1, 2013. In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior. 
    Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. hlm. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. Diakses tanggal February 1, 2013. To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American. 
    Charles Hirschman; Philip Kasinitz; Josh Dewind (November 4, 1999). The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. Russell Sage Foundation. hlm. 300. ISBN 978-1-61044-289-3. 
    David Halle (July 15, 1987). America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics Among Blue Collar Property Owners. University of Chicago Press. hlm. 233. ISBN 978-0-226-31366-5. The first, and central, way involves the view that Americans are all those persons born within the boundaries of the United States or admitted to citizenship by the government. 
  47. ^ Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip (1982). Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. hlm. 62. ISBN 9780674157262. Diakses tanggal February 1, 2013. ...from Thomas Paine's plea in 1783...to Henry Clay's remark in 1815... "It is hard for us to believe ... how conscious these early Americans were of the job of developing American character out of the regional and generational polaritities and contradictions of a nation of immigrants and migrants." ... To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American.