Masyarakat dan kebudayaan Dinasti Han

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Arca keramik dari masa Han Timur (25–220 m), dipamerkan di Museum Provinsi Sichuan, Chengdu, Tiongkok

Dinasti Han (206 SM – 220 M) adalah dinasti kekaisaran kedua di Tiongkok. Pada masa ini, Tiongkok berhasil mencapai kemajuan ekonomi, teknologi, budaya, dan sosial. Masyarakatnya diperintah oleh kaisar yang berbagi kekuasaan dengan para pejabat/ahli dan bangsawan-bangsawan semi-feudal. Hukum, adat, sastra, dan pendidikan Dinasti Han dipandu oleh sistem filsafat dan etika Kong Hu Cu, walaupun pengaruh legalisme dan Taoisme masih dapat dirasakan. Anggota golongan elit terpelajar yang berangan-angan menjadi pejabat harus mendapatkan pendidikan Kong Hu Cu terlebih dahulu.

Walaupun status sosial bangsawan, pejabat, petani, dan pengrajin dianggap lebih tinggi daripada para pedagang yang terdaftar oleh pemerintah, niagawan-niagawan sukses dapat menumpuk kekayaan yang membuat mereka dapat menyaingi martabat para bangsawan dan pejabat tertinggi. Sementara itu, budak dianggap sebagai golongan yang paling rendah, tetapi jumlah mereka hanya sedikit.

Rumah tangga di Dinasti Han biasanya terdiri dari keluarga inti dengan empat hingga lima anggota keluarga, tidak seperti pada masa dinasti-dinasti berikutnya ketika rumah tangga dihuni oleh beberapa generasi sekaligus dan anggota keluarga besar. Keluarga di Han bersifat patrilineal. Perjodohan merupakan hal yang lumrah, dan istri yang baru menikah akan bergabung dengan klan suaminya. Masyarakat Han lebih menghargai anak lelaki daripada perempuan karena dianggap penting untuk meneruskan praktik pemujaan leluhur.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

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