Pemerintahan Kleopatra VII dari Kerajaan Ptolemeus Mesir dimulai pasca kematian ayahnya, penguasa Firaun Ptolemeus XII Auletes, pada tanggal 51 Maret SM. Pemerintahan ini berakhir dengan kematiannya pada 10 atau 12 Agustus 30 SM.[note 1] Setelah pemerintahan Kleopatra, negara Mesir diubah menjadi provinsi oleh Kekaisaran Romawi dan periode Helenistik berakhir.[note 2]
Selama masa pemerintahannya dia memerintah Mesir dan wilayah lain sebagai ratu absolut, seperti tradisi Ptolemaios I Soter (memerintah 305–283 SM) pendiri dinasti Ptolemaik, demikian juga dengan Aleksander Agung (memerintah 336-323 SM) dari Makedonia, yang merebut Mesir dari Kekaisaran Akhemeniyah, Persia.
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date of Cleopatra's death
- Grant 1972, hlm. 5–6 notes that the Hellenistic period, beginning with the reign of Alexander the Great (336–323 BC), came to an end with the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Michael Grant stresses that the Hellenistic Greeks were viewed by contemporary Romans as having declined and diminished in greatness since the age of Classical Greece, an attitude that has continued even into the works of modern historiography. In regards to Hellenistic Egypt, Grant argues that "Cleopatra VII, looking back upon all that her ancestors had done during that time, was not likely to make the same mistake. But she and her contemporaries of the first century BC had another, peculiar, problem of their own. Could the 'Hellenistic Age' (which we ourselves often regard as coming to an end in about her time) still be said to exist at all, could any Greek age, now that the Romans were the dominant power? This was a question never far from Cleopatra's mind. But it is quite certain that she considered the Greek epoch to be by no means finished, and intended to do everything in her power to ensure its perpetuation."