Mandaeisme

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Mandaeisme atau Mandaeanisme (bahasa Arab: مندائيةMandāʼīyah) adalah sebuah agama gnostik[1]:4 dengan kosmologi dualistik yang kuat. Para pengikutnya, Mandanean, memuliakan Adam, Habil, Seth, Enos, Nuh, Sem dan Aram dan khususnya Yahya. Mandaean adalah suku Semit dan pemakai dialek Aram Timur yang dikenal sebagai bahasa Mandaik. Nama 'Mandaean' dikatakan berasal dari kata Aram manda yang artinya "pengetahuan", seperti halnya kata gnosis dalam bahasa Yunani.[2][3] Di Timur Tengah, selain di luar komunitas mereka, Mandaean lebih dikenal sebagai Ṣubba (tunggal: Ṣubbī) atau Sabian. Istilah Ṣubba berasal dari akar Aram yang berkaitan dengan pembaptisan, neo-Mandaik disebut Ṣabi.[4] Dalam Islam, "Sabian" (bahasa Arab: الصابئونal-Ṣābiʾūn) disebut beberapa kali dalam al-Qur'an sebagai Ahli Kitab, bersama dengan Yahudi dan Nasrani. Terkadang, Mandaean disebut "Umat Kristen dari Santo Yohanes".[5]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2002), The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people (PDF), Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195153859 
  2. ^ Rudolph, Kurt (1978). Mandaeism. BRILL. hlm. 15. ISBN 9789004052529. In some texts, however, it is said that Anoš and Manda ḏHayyē appeared in Jerusalem together with Jesus Christ (Mšiha), and exposed him as a lying prophet. This tradition can be explained by an anti-Christian concept, which is also found in Mandaeism, but, according to several scholars, it contains scarcely any traditions of historical events. Because of the strong dualism in Mandaeism, between body and soul, great attention is paid to the "deliverance" of the soul 
  3. ^ The Light and the Dark: Dualism in ancient Iran, India, and China Petrus Franciscus Maria Fontaine – 1990 "Although it shows Jewish and Christian influences, Mandaeism was hostile to Judaism and Christianity. Mandaeans spoke an East-Aramaic language in which 'manda' means 'knowledge'; this already is sufficient proof of the connection of Mandaeism with the Gnosis...
  4. ^ Häberl 2009, hlm. 1
  5. ^ Edmondo, Lupieri (2004). "Friar of Ignatius of Jesus (Carlo Leonelli) and the First "Scholarly" Book on Mandaeaism (1652)". ARAM Periodical. 16 (Mandaeans and Manichaeans): 25–46. ISSN 0959-4213. 

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Häberl, Charles G. (2009), The neo-Mandaic dialect of Khorramshahr, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-05874-2 
  • Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen. 2002. The Mandaeans: Ancient Texts and Modern People. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Buckley. J.J. "Mandaeans" in Encyclopædia Iranica
  • Drower, Ethel Stefana. 2002. The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran: Their Cults, Customs, Magic Legends, and Folklore (reprint). Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press.
  • Lupieri, Edmondo. (Charles Hindley, trans.) 2002. The Mandaeans: The Last Gnostics. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  • "A Brief Note on the Mandaeans: Their History, Religion and Mythology," Mandaean Society in America.
  • Newmarker, Chris, Associated Press article, "Faith under fire: Iraq war threatens extinction for ancient religious group" (headline in The Advocate of Stamford, Connecticut, page A12, 10 February 2007)
  • Petermann, J. Heinrich. 2007 The Great Treasure of the Mandaeans (reprint of Thesaurus s. Liber Magni). Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press.
  • Segelberg, Eric, 1958, Maşbūtā. Studies in the Ritual of the Mandæan Baptism. Uppsala
  • Segelberg, Eric, 1970, "The Ordination of the Mandæan tarmida and its Relation to Jewish and Early Christian Ordination Rites," in Studia patristica 10.
  • Eric Segelberg, Trāşa d-Tāga d-Śiślām Rabba. Studies in the rite called the Coronation of Śiślām Rabba. i: Zur Sprache und Literatur der Mandäer (Studia Mandaica 1.) Berlin & New York 1976.
  • Segelberg, Eric, 1977, "Zidqa Brika and the Mandæan Problem. In Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Gnosticism. Ed. Geo Widengren and David Hellholm. Stockholm.
  • Segelberg, Eric, 1978, "The pihta and mambuha Prayers. To the Question of the Liturgical Development amnong the Mandæans" in Gnosis. Festschrift für Hans Jonas. Göttingen.
  • Segelberg, Eric, 1990, "Mandæan – Jewish – Christian. How does the Mandæan tradition relate to Jewish and Christian tradition? in: Segelberg, Gnostica Madaica Liturgica. (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Historia Religionum 11.) Uppsala 1990.
  • Yamauchi, Edwin. 2004. Gnostic Ethics and Mandaean Origins (reprint). Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Naskah Mandaean[sunting | sunting sumber]

Buku tentang Mandaeisme yang tersedia secara daring[sunting | sunting sumber]