Langit-langit kaca

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Sebuah grafik yang mengilustrasikan perbedaan raihan antara pria dan wanita dari tingkat pendidikan yang sama (AS 2006)

Langit-langit kaca adalah sebuah kiasan yang dipakai untuk mewakili sebuah pembatas tak terlihat yang menghalangi demografi yang diberikan (biasanya diterapkan kepada minoritas) dari kenaikan pada tingkat tertentu dalam sebuah hierarki.[1]

Kiasan tersebut pertama kali dicanangkan oleh kaum feminis dalam rujukan kepada pembatas dalam karier wanita yang berprestasi tinggi.[2][3] Di Amerika Serikat, konsep tersebut terkadang diperluas untuk merujuk kepada rintangan-rintangan yang menghalangi kemajuan minoritas wanita, serta minoritas pria.[2][4] Minoritas wanita seringkali menemui banyak kesulitan dalam "menerobos langit-langit kaca" karena mereka berada di persimpangan dari dua kelompok yang dulunya termarginalisasi: wanita dan orang kulit berwarna.[5] Outlet-outlet Asia dan Asia Amerika mencanangkan istilah "langit-langit bambu" untuk merujuk kepada rintangan-rintangan yang seluruh Asia Amerika hadapi dalam memajukan karier mereka.[6][7]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Solid Investments: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, November 1995, p. 13-15.
  2. ^ a b Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. Good for Business: Making Full Use of the Nation's Human Capital. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, March 1995.
  3. ^ Wiley, John (2012). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies. Vol. 5. John Wiley and Sons. 
  4. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Hillary Clinton: 'As a white person,' I have to discuss racism 'every chance I get'". 
  5. ^ “Demarginalising the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Anti-discrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Anti-racist Politics” by Kimberlé Crenshaw in Framing Intersectionality, edited by Helma Lutz et al. (Ashgate, 2011).
  6. ^ Hyun, Jane (2005). Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling: Career Strategies for Asians. New York: HarperBusiness. 
  7. ^ "Top 10 Numbers that Show Why Pay Equity Matters to Asian American Women and Their Families". name. Diakses tanggal 2016-05-03. 

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Cholensky, Stephanie. "The Gender Pay Gap: NO MORE EXCUSES!." Judgment & Decision Making 10.2 (2015): 15-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.
  • Federal Glass Ceiling Commission (March 1995a). Good for business: Making full use of the nation's human capital (pdf) (Laporan). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor. 
  • Fox, Mary; Hesse-Biber, Sharlene N. (1984). Women at work. Palo Alto, California: Mayfield Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-87484-525-9. 
  • Giele, Janet Z.; Stebbins, Leslie F (2003). Women and equality in the workplace a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-937-9. 
  • Hesse-Biber, Sharlene N.; Carter, Gregg L. (2005). Working women in America : split dreams. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515047-6. 
  • Lyness, Karen S.; Thompson, Donna E. (June 1997). "Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives". Journal of Applied Psychology. American Psychological Association. 82 (3): 359–375. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.3.359. 
  • National Partnership for Women and Families, comp. (April 2016). "America's Women and The Wage Gap" (PDF). Trade, Jobs and Wages. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
  • Ponnuswamy, Indra; Manohar, Hansa Lysander (September 2014). "Breaking the glass ceiling – a mixed methods study using Watkins and Marsick's learning organisation culture model". Asian Women. Research Institute of Asian Women (RIAW). 30 (3): 85–111. doi:10.14431/aw.2014.09.30.3.85. 
  • Redwood, Rene A. (October 13, 1995). "Breaking The Glass Ceiling: Good for Business, Good for America". National Council of Jewish Women.
  • Schneps, Leila; Colmez, Coralie (2013), "Math error number 6: Simpson's paradox. The Berkeley sex bias case: discrimination detection", dalam Schneps, Leila; Colmez, Coralie, Math on trial: how numbers get used and abused in the courtroom, New York: Basic Books, hlm. 107–120, ISBN 978-0-465-03292-1 
  • Snyder, Karrie Ann, and Adam Isaiah Green. "Revisiting The Glass Escalator: The Case Of Gender Segregation In A Female Dominated Occupation." Social Problems 55.2 (2008): 271-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.
  • Woodhams, Carol, Ben Lupton, and Marc Cowling. "The Presence Of Ethnic Minority And Disabled Men In Feminised Work: Intersectionality, Vertical Segregation And The Glass Escalator." Sex Roles 72.7/8 (2015): 277-293. Academic Search Complete. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.
  • Malpas, J., "Donald Davidson", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/davidson/>. Web 2 May 2016.
  • International Labor Rights Forum. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.laborrights.org/issues/women’s-rights
  • Hyun, Jane. Breaking the Bamboo Ceiling: Career Strategies for Asians. New York: HarperBusiness, 2005. Print.
  • Wiley, John. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies. Vol. 5. Chicester: John Wiley and Sons, 2012. Print.
  • "Top 10 Numbers that Show Why Pay Equity Matters to Asian American Women and Their Families". Retrieved 2016-05-01

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]