Krisis Republik Romawi

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Krisis Republik Romawi merujuk kepada periode ketidakstabilan politik dan ketegangan sosial yang berpuncak pada keruntuhan Republik Romawi dan kebangkitan Kekaisaran Romawi, dari sekitar 134 SM sampai 44 SM.

Tanggal Krisis tersebut tak jelas karena "Roma berdilema antara normalitas dan krisis" selama beberapa dekade.[1]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Flower, p. 103, n. 58, citing Gruen 1974 and Meier 1997, pp. 7–23.

Sumber besar dan bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Abbott, Frank Frost (1901). A History and Description of Roman Political Institutions. Elibron Classics. ISBN 0-543-92749-0. 
  • P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988) ISBN 978-0-19-814849-4.
  • Florence Dupont (translated by Christoper Woodall), Daily Life in Ancient Rome (Oxford UK and Cambridge USA: Blackwell, 1992) ISBN 0-631-17877-5.
  • Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt and Luis Roniger, Patrons, clients, and friends: interpersonal relations and the structure of trust in society, "Themes in the social sciences" series (Cambridge University Press, 1984) ISBN 978-0-521-28890-3
  • Nic Fields, Spartacus and the Slave war 73-71 BC: A gladiator rebels against Rome (Osprey 2009) ISBN 978-1-84603-353-7 (an easy read for young adults and college students)
  • Harriet I. Flower, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (Cambridge University Press, 2004) ISBN 978-0-521-00390-2 (Found at Google Books). This book includes the essay by Jurgen Von Ungern-Sternberg (translated by Harriet I. Flower), "The Crisis of the Roman Republic," pp. 89–109.
  • E. S. Gruen, The last generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley 1974).
  • Richard R. Losch, All the People in the Bible: An A–Z Guide to the Saints, Scoundrels and Other Characters in Scripture (William B. Erdmans 2008). ISBN 978-0-8028-2454-7.
  • Pamela Marin, Blood in the forum: the struggle for the Roman republic (New York: Continuum 2009) Dewey # 937.07M. ISBN 978-1-84725-167-1
  • Christian Meier, Caesar: A Biography, afterward pp. 481–496 (Basic Books, 1997) ISBN 978-0-465-00895-7
  • Christian Meier, Res publica Amissa: eine Studie zur Verassung und Geschichte der spaten romischen Republik (3rd ed. Frankfort, 1997)
  • Polybius (1823). The General History of Polybius: Translated from the Greek. Vol 2 (edisi ke-Fifth). Oxford: Printed by W. Baxter. 
  • Robin Seager, ed., Crisis of the Roman Republic: Studies in political and social history (W. Heffner & Sons, Ltd. 1969) ISBN 978-0-85270-025-9 (soft cover) and ISBN 978-0-85270-024-2 (hardcover).
  • Barbette Spaeth (1996). The Roman Goddess Ceres. U. of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-77693-4. 
  • Barry Strauss, The Spartacus War (Simon and Schuster 2009) ISBN 978-1-4165-3205-7
  • Ronald Syme, The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80BC–AD14 (original ed. Liverpool University Press, 1939) Anthony Birley, ed. (University of Exeter Press, 1999). ISBN 978-0-85989-632-0.
  • Timothy Peter Wiseman, Remembering the Roman People: Essays on Late-Republican Politics and Literature (Oxford University Press US, 2009) ISBN 978-0-19-923976-4.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]