Konsensus ilmiah

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian

Konsensus ilmiah adalah penilaian kolektif, posisi, dan pendapat komunitas ilmuwan dalam bidang studi tertentu. Konsensus menyiratkan kesepakatan umum, meskipun tidak harus dengan suara bulat.[1]

Konsensus dicapai melalui komunikasi di konferensi akademis, publikasi ilmiah, replikasi reproduksi hasil ilmiah orang lain, debat ilmiah,[2][3][4][5] dan penelaahan sejawat. Terkadang hasil konsensus sulit dikomunikasikan kepada pihak luar atau ruang publik, karena terjadi perdebatan "normal" (non-ilmiah) di luar komunitas.[6]

Debat populer atau politis mengenai suatu subjek yang kontroversial dalam ruang publik, tetapi belum tentu sebagai subjek kontroversial dalam komunitas ilmiah dapat menimbulkan konsensus ilmiah, seperti topik evolusi,[7][8] perubahan iklim,[9] atau Kontroversi vaksin MMR.[6]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Scientific Consensus". Green Facts. Diakses tanggal October 24, 2016. 
  2. ^ Laudan, Larry (1984). Science and Values: The Aims of Science and Their Role in Scientific Debate. London, England, UK: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05267-6. 
  3. ^ Ford, Michael (2008). "Disciplinary authority and accountability in scientific practice and learning" (PDF). Science Education. 92 (3): 409. Bibcode:2008SciEd..92..404F. doi:10.1002/sce.20263. Construction of scientific knowledge is first of all public, a collaborative effort among a community of peers working in a particular area. 'Collaborative' may seem a misnomer because individual scientists compete with each other in their debates about new knowledge claims. Yet this sense of collaboration is important: it checks individual scientists from being given authority for new knowledge claims prematurely. 
  4. ^ Webster, Gregory D. (2009). "The person-situation interaction is increasingly outpacing the person-situation debate in the scientific literature: A 30-year analysis of publication trends, 1978-2007". Journal of Research in Personality. 43 (2): 278–279. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.12.030. 
  5. ^ Horstmann, K. T., & Ziegler, M. (2016). Situational Perception: Its Theoretical Foundation, Assessment, and Links to Personality. In U. Kumar (Ed.), The Wiley Handbook of Personality Assessment (1st ed., pp. 31–43). Oxford: Wiley Blackwell. ("In Personality Assessment, Walter Mischel focused on the instability of personality and claimed that it is nearly impossible to predict behavior with personality (Mischel, 1968, 2009). This led to the person-situation debate, a controversy in psychology that sought to answer the question whether behavior depended more on the subject’s personality or the situation (or both) and has received considerable research attention (Webster, 2009).")
  6. ^ a b Shwed Uri; Peter Bearman (December 2010). "The Temporal Structure of Scientific Consensus Formation". American Sociological Review. 75 (6): 817–40. doi:10.1177/0003122410388488. PMC 3163460alt=Dapat diakses gratis. PMID 21886269. 
  7. ^ "Statement on the Teaching of Evolution" (PDF). American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2006-02-16. Diakses tanggal 2008-05-02. 
  8. ^ "NSTA Position Statement: The Teaching of Evolution". National Science Teacher Association. Diakses tanggal 2008-05-02. 
  9. ^ "Joint Science Academies' Statement"