Kepanikan 1893

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Gambaran para pemegang saham sedang runyam pada 5 Mei 1893, dari Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper

Kepanikan 1893 adalah sebuah depresi ekonomi serius di Amerika Serikat yang dimulai pada 1893 dan berakhir pada 1897.[1] Peristiwa tersebut sangat berdampak pada setiap sektor ekonomi, dan menghasilkan kebangkitan politik yang berujung pada pemilihan tahun 1896 dan kepresidenan William McKinley.

Perkiraan tingkat pengangguran per 100 orang pada 1890an (Sumber: Romer, 1986)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Lebergott Romer
1890 4.0 4.0
1891 5.4 4.8
1892 3.0 3.7
1893 11.7 8.1
1894 18.4 12.3
1895 13.7 11.1
1896 14.5 12.0
1897 14.5 12.4
1898 12.4 11.6
1899 6.5 8.7
1900 5.0 5.0

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Timberlake, Jr., Richard H. (1997). "Panic of 1893". Dalam Glasner, David; Cooley, Thomas F. Business Cycles and Depressions: an Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing. hlm. 516–18. ISBN 0-8240-0944-4. 

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber kontemporer[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • American Annual Cyclopedia...1894 (1895) online
  • Baum, Lyman Frank and W. W. Denslow. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900); see Political interpretations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
  • Brice, Lloyd Stephens, and James J. Wait. “The Railway Problem.” North American Review 164 (March 1897): 327–48. online at MOA Cornell.
  • Cleveland, Frederick A. "The Final Report of the Monetary Commission," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 13 (January 1899): 31–56 in JSTOR
  • Closson, Carlos C. Jr. "The Unemployed in American Cities." Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 8, no. 2 (January 1894) 168–217 in JSTOR); vol. 8, no. 4 (July 1894): 443–477 in JSTOR
  • Fisher, Willard. "‘Coin’ and His Critics." Quarterly Journal of Economics 10 (January 1896): 187–208 in JSTOR
  • Harvey, William H. Coin’s Financial School (1894), 1963 (Introduction by Richard Hofstadter). online first edition
  • Noyes, Alexander Dana. "The Banks and the Panic," Political Science Quarterly 9 (March 1894): 12–28 in JSTOR.
  • Shaw, Albert. "Relief for the Unemployed in American Cities," Review of Reviews 9 (January and February 1894): 29–37, 179–91.
  • Stevens, Albert Clark. "An Analysis of the Phenomena of the Panic in the United States in 1893," Quarterly Journal of Economics 8 (January 1894): 117–48 in JSTOR.

Sumber sekunder[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barnes, James A. John G. Carlisle: Financial Statesman (1931).
  • Barnes, James A. (1947). "Myths of the Bryan Campaign". Mississippi Valley Historical Review. The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 34, No. 3. 34 (3): 383–394. doi:10.2307/1898096. JSTOR 1898096. 
  • Bent, Peter H. (2015), "The Stabilising Effects of the Dingley Tariff and the Recovery from the 1890s Depression in the United States", Crises in Economic and Social History: A Comparative Perspective, hlm. 373-390. [1] 
  • Bent, Peter H. (2015). "The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Protectionism in Turn of the Century America". Economic Thought. 4 (2): 68–79. [2]. 
  • Destler, Chester McArthur. American Radicalism, 1865–1901 (1966).
  • Dewey, Davis Rich. Financial History of the United States (1903). online.
  • Dighe, Ranjit S. ed. The Historian's Wizard of Oz: Reading L. Frank Baum's Classic as a Political and Monetary Allegory (2002).
  • Dorfman, Joseph Harry. The Economic Mind in American Civilization. (1949). vol 3.
  • Faulkner, Harold Underwood. Politics, Reform, and Expansion, 1890–1900. (1959).
  • Feder, Leah Hanna. Unemployment Relief in Periods of Depression ... 1857–1920 (1926).
  • Friedman, Milton, and Anna Jacobson Schwartz. A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960 (1963).
  • Harpine, William D. From the Front Porch to the Front Page: McKinley and Bryan in the 1896 Presidential Campaign (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Hoffmann, Charles (1956). "The Depression of the Nineties". Journal of Economic History. 16 (2): 137–164. JSTOR 2114113. 
  • Hoffmann, Charles. The Depression of the Nineties: An Economic History (1970).
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: 1888–1896 (1971).
  • Josephson, Matthew. The Robber Barons New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (1990).
  • Kirkland, Edward Chase. Industry Comes of Age, 1860–1897 (1961).
  • Lauck, William Jett. The Causes of the Panic of 1893 (1907). online
  • Lindsey, Almont. The Pullman Strike 1942.
  • Littlefield, Henry M. (1964). "The Wizard of Oz: Parable on Populism". American Quarterly. American Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 1. 16 (1): 47–58. doi:10.2307/2710826. JSTOR 2710826. 
  • Nevins, Allan. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage. 1932, Pulitzer Prize.
  • Rezneck, Samuel S. (1953). "Unemployment, Unrest, and Relief in the United States during the Depression of 1893–97". Journal of Political Economy. The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 61, No. 4. 61 (4): 324–345. doi:10.1086/257393. JSTOR 1826883. 
  • Ritter, Gretchen. Goldbugs and Greenbacks: The Anti-Monopoly Tradition and the Politics of Finance in America (1997)
  • Ritter, Gretchen (1997). "Silver slippers and a golden cap: L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and historical memory in American politics". Journal of American Studies. 31 (2): 171–203. doi:10.1017/S0021875897005628. 
  • Rockoff, Hugh (1990). "The 'Wizard of Oz' as a Monetary Allegory". Journal of Political Economy. The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98, No. 4. 98 (4): 739–760. doi:10.1086/261704. JSTOR 2937766. 
  • Romer, Christina (1986). "Spurious Volatility in Historical Unemployment Data". Journal of Political Economy. 94 (1): 1–37. doi:10.1086/261361. 
  • Schwantes, Carlos A. Coxey’s Army: An American Odyssey (1985).
  • Shannon, Fred Albert. The Farmer’s Last Frontier: Agriculture, 1860–1897 (1945).
  • Steeples, Douglas, and David O. Whitten. Democracy in Desperation: The Depression of 1893 (1998).
  • Strouse, Jean. Morgan: American Financier (1999).
  • White; Gerald T. The United States and the Problem of Recovery after 1893 (1982).
  • Whitten, David. EH.NET article on the Depression of 1893
  • Wicker, Elmus. Banking panics of the gilded age (Cambridge University Press, 2006) contents

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