Keajaiban ekonomi Yunani

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Menara Athens, simbol keajaiban ekonomi Yunani pasca perang selama tahun 1950-1973.

Keajaiban ekonomi Yunani adalah istilah yang mengacu kepada pertumbuhan ekonomi berkelanjutan di Yunani dari tahun 1950 hingga 1973. Pada periode ini, rata-rata pertumbuhan ekonomi Yunani tercatat sebesar 7,7% (tertinggi kedua di dunia setelah Jepang).[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

Latar belakang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dari tahun 1941 hingga 1944, Yunani diduduki oleh Blok Poros dan perlawanan terhadap pendudukan mengakibatkan kehancuran infrastruktur dan ekonomi (yang diperparah oleh pinjaman yang diminta secara paksa oleh rezim pendudukan yang mengakibatkan devaluasi drachma Yunani). Selain itu, setelah berakhirnya Perang Dunia II, perang saudara meletus hingga tahun 1949. Akibatnya, pada tahun 1950, ekonomi Yunani mengalami kemunduran. Menurut ekonom Angus Maddison, pendapatan per kapita berdasarkan daya beli turun dari 62% pendapatan per kapita Prancis pada tahun 1938 menjadi 40% pada tahun 1949.[1]

Pertumbuhan ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pemulihan ekonomi Yunani setelah perang difasilitasi oleh sejumlah kebijakan. Selain memperoleh bantuan dari Rencana Marshall, pemerintah juga melancarkan kebijakan devaluasi drachma, penarikan investasi asing, pembangunan industri kimia, pengembangan sektor pariwisata dan jasa, serta pembangunan infrastruktur besar-besaran.[18][19]

Laju pertumbuhan ekonomi Yunani pada tahun 1950-an merupakan yang tertinggi dan sering kali melebihi 10%. Produksi industri juga mengalami pertumbuhan sebesar 10% setiap tahunnya selama beberapa tahun, terutama pada tahun 1960-an. Namun, pertumbuhan ekonomi memperlebar jurang antara yang kaya dan yang miskin, sehingga memicu perpecahan politik.[18]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Angus Maddison, "Monitoring the World Economy 1820-1992", OECD (1995)
  2. ^ Graham T. Allison; Kalypso Nicolaïdis (January 1997). The Greek Paradox: Promise Vs. Performance. MIT Press. hlm. 43. ISBN 978-0-262-51092-9. phase of 1960 to 1973 (the period hailed by many as the "Greek economic miracle"), gross domestic product grew at an average annual rate of 7.7 percent, but exports of goods and services grew at the much higher average rate of 12.6 
  3. ^ HAMISH MCRAE (27 June 2015). "Greece crisis: It needs another economic miracle – and it could happen". The Independent. Indeed, between 1950 and the oil crisis of 1973 it was Europe’s fasting growing economy, with growth rates of 7 per cent a year. This period was dubbed the Greek economic miracle. 
  4. ^ Richard C. Frucht (2004). Eastern Europe: an introduction to the people, lands, and culture. Vol. 2. ABC-CLIO. hlm. 877. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. ... called Greek economic miracle. During these years, Greece's GDP grew at the fastest rate in Western Europe, averaging almost 8 percent annually. Meanwhile, industrial production grew at an average annual rate of 10 percent,ex- ceeded ... 
  5. ^ Lila Leontidou (26 April 1990). The Mediterranean City in Transition: Social Change and Urban Development. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 125. ISBN 978-0-521-34467-8. In fact, the Greek economic miracle of industrialization was partly due to the suppression of the working class. 
  6. ^ Mehmet Odekon (17 March 2015). Booms and Busts: An Encyclopedia of Economic History from the First Stock Market Crash of 1792 to the Current Global Economic Crisis. Routledge. hlm. 322. ISBN 978-1-317-47576-7. Several factors contributed to what became known as the “Greek economic miracle.” First was the country's participation in the Marshall Plan, a massive influx of U.S. capital aimed at jump-starting Western European economies in the wake of .. 
  7. ^ Shiva Pratap Singh (2010). Glimpses of Europe: A Crucible of Winning Ideas, Great Civilizations and Bloodiest Wars. Gyan Publishing House. hlm. 651. ISBN 978-81-7835-831-4. Afier World War H, Greece experienced the “Greek economic miracle”; GDP growth averaged 7% between 1950 and 1973. Since then Greece has implemented number of structural and fiscal reforms while receiving, considerable European ... 
  8. ^ Stathis Kalyvas (3 April 2015). Modern Greece: What Everyone Needs to KnowRG. Oxford University Press. hlm. 88. ISBN 978-0-19-997346-0. The efficiency with which the Greek nuclear family could pursue gain,” concludes McNeill, “by combination of hard work, shrewd exploitation of market opportunities, and rigorous saving for the future, lay behind the Greek economic miracle. 
  9. ^ Constantine Arvanitopoulos; Konstantina E. Botsiou (19 May 2010). The Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy Yearbook 2010. Springer Science & Business Media. hlm. 110. ISBN 978-3-642-12374-0. The flats-for-land exchange programme changed the architecture in urban centres, and towards the end of the so-called Greek economic 'miracle' in the mid '70s, agriculture accounted for 18% of GDP, while industry accounted for about 30%. 
  10. ^ David H. Close (25 September 2014). Greece Since 1945: Politics, Economy and Society. Routledge. hlm. 56. ISBN 978-1-317-88001-1. 'Origins of the “Greek economic miracle”: the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan development and stabilisation programs', in Eugene Rossides (ed.), The Truman Doctrine for Aid to Greece. A Fiftieth Anniversary ... 
  11. ^ Elena Calandri; Antonio Varsori; Daniele Caviglia (26 November 2014). Détente in Cold War Europe: Politics and Diplomacy in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. I.B.Tauris. hlm. 17. ISBN 978-1-78076-108-4. During 1950–1973, il boom in Italy, les Trente Glorieuses in France and the Greek 'Economic Miracle' were to transform the economies and societies of these countries. 
  12. ^ OECD (15 September 2008). The Marshall Plan Lessons Learned for the 21st Century: Lessons Learned for the 21st Century. OECD Publishing. hlm. 120. ISBN 978-92-64-04425-8. The Marshall Plan began as an emergency program, but its sustained contributions to agriculture and finance succeeded in laying the foundation for the Greek economic miracle of the 1950s. 
  13. ^ Kathleen Burk (1 October 2009). Old World, New World: Great Britain and America from the Beginning. Grove Press. hlm. 735. ISBN 978-0-8021-4429-4. The Origins of the Greek Economic Miracle', University College London PhD thesis ... 
  14. ^ Dimitris Keridis (1 July 2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern Greece. Scarecrow Press. hlm. 57. ISBN 978-0-8108-6312-5. What followed, however, has been described as the Greek “economic miracle.” Through the stewardship of Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis and of other Greek politicians, such as Georgios Kartalis and Spyros Markezinis, foreign aid ... 
  15. ^ Veronica Binda (26 June 2013). The Dynamics of Big Business: Structure, Strategy, and Impact in Italy and Spain. Routledge. hlm. 177. ISBN 978-1-134-06335-2. After World War II, the presence of foreign multinationals also started to increase and the attraction of foreign capital was a goal actively pursued by governments in the years of the Greek economic miracle. 
  16. ^ United States. Congress. House. Foreign Affairs (1971). Greece, Spain, and the Southern NATO Strategy: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Europe..., 92-1, July 12, 14, 19, 21, August 3, September 9, 15, 1971. hlm. 3. During this period the foundations were laid and the first fruits were reaped — of what has come to be known as the "Greek economic miracle." Generally the 1950's could be characterized as a period of rapid economic development as well as ... 
  17. ^ Greek-American Review. 51-52. Hellenic Heritage. 1999. hlm. 20. He writes on the origins of the "Greek Economic Miracle" and provides the longest and one of the most important papers. 
  18. ^ a b Joanna Bens, Nikolaos Karagiannis, Abdelaziz Testas. EU Regional and Industrial Policies. In "Europe in Crisis: Problems, Challenges, and Alternative Perspectives", Palgrave Macmillan (2015) p. 174
  19. ^ Elaine Thomopoulos, "The History of Greece", ABC-CLIO (2011) p. 152

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