Kösem Sultan

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Kösem Sultan
كوسم سلطان
Naib-i-Sultanat Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
(periode pertama)
Perwalian 10 September 1623 – 18 Meiy 1632
Pendahulu Tidak ada
Sultan Murad IV
(periode kedua)
Perwalian 8 August 1648 – 2 September 1651
Pengganti Turhan Hatice Sultan
Sultan Mehmed IV
Valide Sultan Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Tenure 10 September 1623 – 2 September 1651
Pendahulu Halime Sultan
Pengganti Turhan Hatice Sultan
Haseki Sultan Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Tenure 26 November 1605 – 22 November 1617
Pendahulu Safiye Sultan
Pengganti Ayşe Sultan
Lahir kr. 1589–1590
Tinos, Eyalet Morea, Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah[1]
(sekarang teritorial dari Yunani)
Mangkat 2 September 1651
Konstantinopel, Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Pasangan Ahmed I
Anak
Şehzade Mehmed
Şehzade Selim
Murad IV
Şehzade Kasim
Şehzade Suleiman
Ibrahim
Ayşe Sultan
Fatma Sultan
Gevherhan Sultan[2]
Hanzade Sultan[3]
Burnaz Atike Sultan
Agama Islam, sebelumnya Kristen Ortodoks

Kösem Sultan (Pengucapan bahasa Turki: [cøˈsem sulˈtan]) (nama lengkap Devletlu İsmetlu Mahpeyker Kösem Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; kr. 1590 – 2 September 1651) – juga dikenal sebagai Mahpeyker Sultan[4] (Pengucapan bahasa Turki: [mahpejˈkeɾ sulˈtan]) – adalah salah satu wanita paling berkuasa dalam sejarah Utsmaniyah.[4][5][6][7] Sebagai permaisuri kesayangan dan istri sah dari Sultan Utsmaniyah Ahmed I (r. 1603–1617), ia meraih kekuasaan dan mempengaruhi politik Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah melalui suaminya, kemudian melalui putra-putranya Murad IV (r. 1623–1640) dan Ibrahim (r. 1640–1648), dan terakhir melalui cucu minornya Mehmed IV (r. 1648–1687). Ia menjadi Valide Sultan[4] ketika putra-putranya Murad IV dan Ibrahim menjabat sebagai sultan Utsmaniyah. Ia merupaka figur berpengaruh pada masa Kesultanan Wanita. Setelah kematiannya, ia dikenal dengan nama "Valide-i Maktule" (ibu yang terbunuh), dan "Valide-i Șehide" (ibu yang menjadi martir).[8]

Biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Putra-putra Kösem Sultan yang menjadi Sultan Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah. Kiri: Murad IV (ca. 1612–1640) Kanan: Ibrahim (ca. 1615–1648) Putra-putra Kösem Sultan yang menjadi Sultan Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah. Kiri: Murad IV (ca. 1612–1640) Kanan: Ibrahim (ca. 1615–1648)
Putra-putra Kösem Sultan yang menjadi Sultan Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah. Kiri: Murad IV (ca. 1612–1640) Kanan: Ibrahim (ca. 1615–1648)

Kehidupan awal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kösem berasal dari Yunani,[9][10][11][12] sebagai putri dari seorang pendeta di pulau Tinos.[13][14] Nama maiden-nya adalah Anastasia.[15] Ia dijadikan budak di Bosnia Utsmaniyah oleh beylerbey Bosnia,[16][14] dan dikirim ke Konstantinopel, ibukota Utsmaniyah, pada usia lima belas tahun, ke harem Sultan Ahmed I setelah membatalkan pendidikannya di Konstantinopel. Setelah ia pindah ke Islam, namanya diubah menjadi Mahpeyker (Bulan Terbentuk), dan kemudian oleh Sultan Ahmed I menjadi Kösem.[12] Ia dipindahkan ke istana lama saat kematian Sultan Ahmed pada 1617, namun dikembalikan sebagai Valide Sultan, ketika putranya Murad IV naik tahta pada 1623.

Anak[sunting | sunting sumber]

Putra[17][sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Şehzade Mehmed (8 Maret 1605 – dibunuh pada 12 Januari 1621), Pangeran Mahkota sejak 1618.
  • Şehzade Selim (27 Juni 1611 – 27 Juli 1611).
  • Murad IV (26/27 Juli 1612 – 8 Februari 1640). Menjadi Sultan Utsmaniyah ke-17 dari 20 Januari 1623 sampai kematiannya.
  • Şehzade Kasim (awal 1614 – 17 Februari 1638), Pangeran Mahkota sejak 1635.
  • Şehzade Suleiman (awal 1615 – dibunuh pada 27 Juli 1635).
  • Ibrahim (5 November 1615 – 18 Agustus 1648). Menjadi Sultan Utsmaniyah ke-18 dari 9 Februari 1640 sampai 12 Agustus 1648.

Putri[17][sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Ayşe Sultan (akhir 1605 – Mei 1657).
  • Fatma Sultan (1606 – 1670).
  • Gevherhan Sultan (1608 – 1660).
  • Hanzade Sultan (1609 – 21 September 1650)
  • Burnaz Atike Sultan (akhir 1614 – 1674).

Film[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ http://www.dr.com.tr/kitap/kara-kralice-kosem/demet-altinyeleklioglu/edebiyat/roman/turkiye-roman/urunno=0000000413240
  2. ^ Singh, Nagendra Kr (2000). International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties. Anmol Publications PVT. pp. 423–424. ISBN 81-261-0403-1. Through her beauty and intelligence, Kösem Walide was especially attractive to Ahmed I, and drew ahead of more senior wives in the palace. She bore the sultan four sons – Murad, Süleyman, Ibrahim and Kasim – and three daughters – 'Ayşe, Fatma and Djawharkhan. These daughters she subsequently used to consolidate her political influence by strategic marriages to different viziers. 
  3. ^ Peirce, Leslie P. (1993), The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, p. 365, ISBN 0195086775 
  4. ^ a b c Douglas Arthur Howard, The official History of Turkey, Greenwood Press, isbn= 0-313-30708-3, p. 195
  5. ^ Bator, Robert, – Rothero, Chris (2000). Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Istanbul. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 42. ISBN 0-8225-3217-4. When such a son became sultan, his slave mother would become the most powerful woman in the Ottoman Empire. The Macedonian slave Kösem earned this distinction 
  6. ^ Akbar, M. J. (2002). The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict Between Islam and Christianity. Routledge. p. 89. ISBN 0-415-28470-8. His mother, Valide Kosem, said to be the most powerful woman in the history of the dynasty, ruled in his name. 
  7. ^ Westheimer, Ruth Karola, – Kaplan, Steven (2001). Power. University of Virginia: Madison Books. p. 19. ISBN 1-56833-230-0. Maypeyker Sultan, better known as Kösem Sultan, is remembered by the Turks as the most powerful woman of her time 
  8. ^ Necdet Sakaoğlu (2007). Famous Ottoman women. Avea. p. 129. 
  9. ^ al-Ayvansarayî, Hafiz Hüseyin  ; Crane, Howard (2000). The garden of the mosques : Hafiz Hüseyin al-Ayvansarayî's guide to the Muslim monuments of Ottoman Istanbul. Brill. p. 21. ISBN 90-04-11242-1. Kosem Valide Mahpeyker, known also simply as Kosem Sultan (c. 1589–1651), consort of Sultan Ahmed I and mother of Murad IV and Ibrahim I. Greek by birth, she exercised a decisive influence in the Ottoman state 
  10. ^ "Kosem Sultan (Ottoman sultana) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Diakses tanggal 11 March 2012. 
  11. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen (1954). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 597. ISBN 90-04-07026-5. Kosem [qv] Mahpeyker, a woman of Greek origin (Anastasia, 1585–1651) 
  12. ^ a b Davis, Fanny (1970). The Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. Scribner. pp. 227–228. OCLC 636864790. Kosem was said to have been the daughter of a Greek priest of one of the Aegean islands, probably captured during one of the Ottoman-Venetian maritime campaigns. Her name was Anastasia but was changed after her conversion, no doubt on her admission to the palace, to Mâh-Peyker (Moon-Shaped), and later by Sultan Ahmet to Kosem 
  13. ^ Hogan, Christine (2006). The Veiled Lands: A Woman's Journey Into the Heart of the Islamic World. Macmillan Publishers Aus. p. 74. ISBN 9781405037013. 
  14. ^ a b Freely, John (1996). Istanbul: the imperial city. Viking. p. 215. ISBN 0-14-024461-1. Then around 1608 Ahmet found a new favourite, a Greek girl named Anastasia, who had been captured on the island of Tinos and sent as a slave to the Harem, where she took the name of Kosem 
  15. ^ Sonyel, Salâhi Ramadan (1993). Minorities and the destruction of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish Historical Society Printing House. p. 61. ISBN 975-16-0544-X. Many of the women of the harem were non-Muslim, for example Kösem Sultan was born in 1590 as Anastasia. The Governor of Bosnia had sent her to the Sultan. She was the wife of Ahmet I (1603–17), and the mother of Murat IV (1623–40), and of Ibrahim I (1640–8) 
  16. ^ Amila Buturović, İrvin Cemil Schick (2007). Women in the Ottoman Balkans: gender, culture and history. I.B.Tauris. p. 23. ISBN 1-84511-505-8. Kösem, who was of Greek origin. Orphaned very young, she found herself at the age of fifteen in the harem of Sultan Ahmed I. 
  17. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama :0
  18. ^ Hurriyet Daily News, 14 September 2010, Turkish screenwriter tells Ottoman history through one woman's life
  19. ^ IMDB, Mahpeyker - Kösem Sultan
Ottoman
Didahului oleh:
Safiye Sultan
Haseki Sultan
26 November 1605 – 22 November 1617
Diteruskan oleh:
Ayşe Sultan
Didahului oleh:
Halime Sultan
Valide Sultan
10 September 1623 – 3 September 1651
Diteruskan oleh:
Turhan Hatice Sultan
Didahului oleh:
Tidak ada
Naib-i-Sultanat
10 September 1623 – 18 Mei 1632 dan
8 Agustus 1648 – 3 September 1651
Diteruskan oleh:
Turhan Hatice Sultan

Templat:Dinasti Utsmaniyah