Jammu dan Kashmir (wilayah persatuan)

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Jammu dan Kashmir
Pahalgam Valley.jpg
Akhnoor Fort - Jammu - Jammu and Kashmir - DSC 0001.jpg
Dari atas ke bawah: Lembah Lidder, Benteng Akhnoor
Peta wilayah Kashmir yang disengketakan yang menunjukkan wilayah kendali oleh India, Pakistan, dan Tiongkok
Peta wilayah Kashmir yang disengketakan dengan dua wilayah yang dikelola India ditampilkan berwarna putih kuam[3][1][2]
Koordinat: 33°30′N 75°00′E / 33.5°N 75.0°E / 33.5; 75.0Koordinat: 33°30′N 75°00′E / 33.5°N 75.0°E / 33.5; 75.0
NegaraIndia
Wilayah persatuan31 Oktober 2019
Ibu kotaSrinagar (Mei–Oktober)
Jammu (November-April)[4]
Distrik20
Pemerintahan
 • BadanPemerintah Jammu dan Kashmir
 • Gubernur LetnanManoj Sinha
 • Ketua Menterikosong
 • Badan legislatifUnikameral (114 kursi)[5]
 • Daerah pemilihan parlemenRajya Sabha (4)
Lok Sabha (5)
 • Pengadilan TinggiHigh Court of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh
Luas
 • Total42.241 km2 (16,309 sq mi)
Ketinggian tertinggi7.135 m (23,409 ft)
Ketinggian terendah247 m (810 ft)
Populasi
 (2011)[7]
 • Total12,267,013
 • Kepadatan290/km2 (750/sq mi)
Bahasa
 • ResmiHindi, Kashmir, Dogri, Urdu, Inggris[8][9]
 • TuturGurjar, Pahari,[10] Punjab, Bhadarwah,[11] Bateri,[12] Khowar,[13] Shina,[14][15] Burushaski,[16]
Zona waktuUTC+05:30 (IST)
Kode ISO 3166IN-JK
Pelat kendaraanJK
IPM (2018)Kenaikan 0.688 (Medium)
Situs webwww.jk.gov.in

Jammu dan Kashmir adalah suatu daerah di India yang berstatus sebagai wilayah persatuan[1] dan terdiri dari bagian selatan wilayah Kashmir yang lebih besar Kashmir, yang telah menjadi sengketa antara India dan Pakistan sejak 1947, dan India dan Tiongkok sejak 1962.[3][17] Garis Kendali membagi Jammu dan Kashmir dari wilayah kendali oleh Pakistan di Azad Kashmir dan Gilgit-Baltistan di barat dan utara. Wilayah persatuan Jammu dan Kashmir terletak di sebelah utara negara bagian Himachal Pradesh dan Punjab dan sebelah barat Ladakh, yang juga bagian sengketa Kashmir, dan juga dikelola oleh India sebagai wilayah persatuan.[2]

Ketentuan untuk pembentukan wilayah persatuan Jammu dan Kashmir terkandung dalam Undang-undang Perombakan Jammu dan Kashmir, 2019, yang disahkan oleh dua majelis Parlemen India pada Agustus 2019. Undang-undang tersebut merombak kembali bekas negara bagian Jammu dan Kashmir menjadi dua wilayah persatuan, satu menjadi Jammu-Kashmir dan yang lain menjadi Ladakh, yang berlaku mulai 31 Oktober 2019.[18]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Jammu dan Kashmir adalah wilayah sengketa antara India dan Pakistan. Jammu dan Kashmir memiliki 42.241 km2 (16.309 sq mi) yang dikendalikan oleh India dan 13,297 km2 (5,134 sq mi) dikendalikan oleh Pakistan di bawah Azad Kashmir yang diklaim oleh India sebagai bagian dari Jammu dan Kashmir.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c Akhtar, Rais; Kirk, William (22 March 2021), "Jammu and Kashmir", Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., diakses tanggal 2 April 2022,  The union territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. ... The territory that India administered on its side of the line, which contained both Jammu (the seat of the Dogra dynasty) and the Vale of Kashmir, took on the name Jammu and Kashmir. However, both India and Pakistan have continued to claim the entire Kashmir region 
  2. ^ a b c Briticannica, Eds Encycl. (1 March 2021), "Ladakh", Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., diakses tanggal 2 April 2022,  Ladakh, large area of the northern and eastern Kashmir region, northwestern Indian subcontinent. Administratively, Ladakh is divided between Pakistan (northwest), as part of Gilgit-Baltistan, and India (southeast), as part of Ladakh union territory (until October 31, 2019, part of Jammu and Kashmir state); in addition, China administers portions of northeastern Ladakh. 
  3. ^ a b (a) Encyclopaedia Britannia (ed.), "Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent", Encyclopædia Britannica, diakses tanggal 15 August 2019  (subscription required) Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, the last two being part of a territory called the Northern Areas. Administered by India are the southern and southeastern portions, which constitute the state of Jammu and Kashmir but are slated to be split into two union territories. China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the 1950s and has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh (the easternmost portion of the region) since 1962.";
    (b) "Kashmir", Encyclopedia Americana, Scholastic Library Publishing, 2006, hlm. 328, ISBN 978-0-7172-0139-6  C. E Bosworth, University of Manchester Quote: "KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partlv by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947";
  4. ^ The Hindu Net Desk (8 May 2017). "What is the Darbar Move in J&K all about?". The Hindu (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 10 November 2017. Diakses tanggal 23 February 2019. 
  5. ^ Shaswati Das. "Jammu and Kashmir transitions from a state into 2 federal units". livemint.com. Live Mint. Diakses tanggal 30 June 2020. Jammu and Kashmir will also have its own legislative assembly, under which, according to the Act, the number of seats will go up to 114 from 87 currently, following a delimitation exercise. 
  6. ^ Singh, Jogindar (1975). "Saser Kangri". The American Alpine Journal (AAJ): 67. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 14 February 2019. Diakses tanggal 14 February 2019.  pdf of original pages
  7. ^ Singh, Vijaita (29 February 2020). "Only J&K will use 2011 Census for delimitation". The Hindu (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 6 November 2020. 
  8. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Act, 2020" (PDF). The Gazette of India. 27 September 2020. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 19 October 2020. Diakses tanggal 27 September 2020. 
  9. ^ "Parliament passes JK Official Languages Bill, 2020". Rising Kashmir. 23 September 2020. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2020-09-24. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2020. 
  10. ^ Khan, N. (6 August 2012). The Parchment of Kashmir: History, Society, and Polity (dalam bahasa Inggris). Springer. hlm. 184. ISBN 9781137029584. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 23 February 2019. Diakses tanggal 23 February 2019. 
  11. ^ "Bhadrawahi". Ethnologue.com (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 6 August 2019. 
  12. ^ Bateri (dalam bahasa Inggris). 
  13. ^ Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. (2017). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twentieth Edition (dalam bahasa Inggris). Dallas: SIL International. 
  14. ^ Crane, Robert I. (1956). Area Handbook on Jammu and Kashmir State (dalam bahasa Inggris). University of Chicago for the Human Relations Area Files. hlm. 179. Shina is the most eastern of these languages and in some of its dialects such as the Brokpa of Dah and Hanu and the dialect of Dras, it impinges upon the area of the Sino-Tibetan language family and has been affected by Tibetan with an overlay of words and idioms. 
  15. ^ Aggarwal, J. C.; Agrawal, S. P. (1995). Modern History of Jammu and Kashmir: Ancient times to Shimla Agreement (dalam bahasa Inggris). Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170225577. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 24 February 2019. Diakses tanggal 23 February 2019. 
  16. ^ "Pakistan's "Burushaski" Language Finds New Relatives". Npr.org (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 6 August 2019. 
  17. ^ Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003), Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements: G to M, Taylor & Francis, hlm. 1191–, ISBN 978-0-415-93922-5  Quote: "Jammu and Kashmir: Territory in northwestern India, subject to a dispute between India and Pakistan. It has borders with Pakistan and China."
  18. ^ Ministry of Home Affairs (9 August 2019), "In exercise of the powers conferred by clause a of section 2 of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act." (PDF), The Gazette of India, diakses tanggal 9 August 2019 

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