Izapa

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Pemandangan reruntuhan Izapa

Izapa adalah sebuah situs arkeologi dari zaman pra-Kolumbus di negara bagian Chiapas, Meksiko. Situs ini diduduki pada zaman Formatif Akhir. Situs ini terletak di tepi Sungai Izapa.

Permukiman ini mencapai puncak kejayaannya dari tahun 850 SM hingga 100 SM. Beberapa arkeolog menduga bahwa Izapa sudah dihuni dari tahun 1500 SM, dan jika benar maka situs ini setua situs Olmek di San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán dan La Venta.[1][2] Izapa masih diduduki hingga zaman Pascaklasik Awal sekitar tahun 1200 M.

Akibat berlimpahnya prasasti dan monumen Maya di Izapa, istilah "langgam Izapa" mengacu kepada peninggalan-peninggalan serupa di luar wilayah ini, termasuk peninggalan-peninggalan di Takalik Abaj dan Kaminaljuyu.[3]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Malmstrom, Vincent "Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon: The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization" 1997, University of Texas Press (also http://www.dartmouth.edu/~izapa/) hlm. 8
  2. ^ Clark, John E., "The Beginnings of Mesoamerica: Apologia for the Soconusco Early Formative", hlm. 15.
  3. ^ Pool, hlm. 264.

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Coe, Michael D. (1962) Mexico, Frederick A. Praeger, New York.
  • Culebro, C.A. (1939) Chiapas Pre-Histórico: Su Arqueología. Folleto no. 1. Huixtla, Chiapas.
  • Drucker, Philip (1948) Preliminary Notes on an Archaeological Survey of the Chiapas Coast. Middle American Research Records 151–169.
  • Ekholm, Susanna M. (1969) Mound 30a and the Early Preclassic Sequence of Izapa, Chiapas, Mexico. Papers of the New World Archaeological Foundation 73. Brigham Young University, Provo.
  • Evans, Susan Toby. Ancient Mexico & Central America, Thames and Hudson, London, 2004.
  • Gómez Rueda, Hernando (1995) Exploración de Sistemas Hidráulicos en Izapa. In VIII Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, 1994 pp. 9–18. Guatemala.
  • Guernsey, Julia (2006) Ritual and Power in Stone: The Performance of Rulership in Mesoamerican Izapan Style Art, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, ISBN 978-0-292-71323-9.
  • Laughton, Timothy, (1997) Sculpture on the Threshold: The Iconography of Izapa and its Relationship to that of the Maya. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Essex.
  • Lowe, Gareth, Thomas A. Lee, Jr., and Eduardo Martinez Espinoza (1982) Izapa: An Introduction to the Ruins and Monuments. Papers of the New World Archaeological Foundation, No. 31. Brigham Young University, Provo.
  • Malstrom, Vincent H., Izapa: Cultural Hearth of the Olmecs?
  • Mendelsohn, Rebecca R. (2017) Resilience and Interregional Interaction at the Early Mesoamerican City of Izapa: The Formative to Classic Period Transition. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University at Albany, SUNY.
  • Norman, V. Garth, (1973) Izapa Sculpture, Part 1: Album. Papers of the New World Archaeological Foundation 30. Brigham Young University, Provo.
  • Pool, Christopher (2007) Olmec Archaeology and Early Mesoamerica, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-78882-3.
  • Rosenswig, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Rebecca R. (2016). "Izapa and the Soconusco Region, Mexico, in the First Millennium A.D.". Latin American Antiquity. 27: 357–377. doi:10.7183/1045. 
  • Rosenswig, Robert M.; López-Torrijos, Ricardo; Antonelli, Caroline E.; Mendelsohn, Rebecca R. (2013). "Lidar Mapping and Surface Survey of the Izapa State on the Tropical Piedmont of Chiapas, Mexico". Journal of Archaeological Science. 40: 1493–1507. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2012.10.034. 
  • Rosenswig, Robert M.; López-Torrijos, Ricardo; Antonelli, Caroline E. (2015). "Lidar Data and the Izapa Polity: New Results and Methodological Issues from Tropical Mesoamerica". Anthropological and Archaeological Sciences. 7 (4): 487–504. doi:10.1007/s12520-014-0210-7. 
  • Smith, Virginia G., Izapa Relief Carving: Form, Content, Rules for Design, and Role in Mesoamerican Art History and Archaeology, Dumbarton Oaks, 1984.
  • Stirling, Matthew W. (1943) Stone Monuments in Southern Mexico. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 138, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.