Lompat ke isi

Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat: Perbedaan antara revisi

tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
Tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
Tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
Setelah Kongres menyetujui kata-kata akhir Deklarasi pada [[4 Juli]], salinan tulisan tangan itu dikirim beberapa blok ke percetakan [[John Dunlap]]. Sepanjang malam, Dunlap mencetak sekitar 200 [[selebaran]] untuk distribusi. Tak lama, Deklarasi dibacakan kepada khalayak dan dicetak ulang di koran-koran di seluruh 13 [[negara bagian]]. Pembacaan publik resmi pertama dari dokumen tersebut adalah [[John Nixon (ahli keuangan)|John Nixon]] dihalaman [[Balai Kemerdekaan (Amerika Serikat)|Balai Kemerdekaan]] pada [[8 Juli]]; pembacaan publik juga terjadi pada hari itu di [[Trenton, New Jersey]] dan [[Easton, Pennsylvania]].<ref name="Maier156">Maier, ''American Scripture'', 156.</ref> Terjemahannya dalam [[Bahasa Jerman]] diterbitkan di Philadelphia pada [[9 Juli]].<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 72.</ref>
<!--President of Congress John Hancock sent a broadside to General [[George Washington]], instructing him to have it proclaimed "at the Head of the Army in the way you shall think it most proper".<ref>Maier, ''American Scripture'', 155.</ref> Washington had the Declaration read to his troops in [[New York City]] on July 9, with the British forces not far away. Washington and Congress hoped the Declaration would inspire the soldiers, and encourage others to join the army.<ref name="Maier156"/> After hearing the Declaration, crowds in many cities tore down and destroyed signs or statues representing royalty. An equestrian statue of King George in New York City was pulled down and the lead used to make musket balls.<ref>Maier, ''American Scripture'', 156–57.</ref>-->
[[Gambar:William Whipple.jpg|thumb |150px |right |[[William Whipple]], signerpenanda oftangan theDeklarasi Declaration of IndependenceKemerdekaan, freed hismemerdekakan slavebudaknya believingpercaya hebahwa coulddia nottidak fightdapat forberjuang libertyuntuk andkebebasan owndan amemiliki slave[[budak]].]]
<!--British officials in North America sent copies of the Declaration to Great Britain.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 73.</ref> It was published in British newspapers beginning in mid-August; translations appeared in European newspapers soon after.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 70.</ref> The [[North Ministry]] did not give an official answer to the Declaration, but instead secretly commissioned pamphleteer [[John Lind (barrister)|John Lind]] to publish a response, which was entitled ''Answer to the Declaration of the American Congress''.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 75.</ref> British Tories denounced the signers of the Declaration for not applying the same principles of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" to African Americans.<ref>{{cite magazine |last=Jessup |first=John J. |title=America and the Future |magazine=Life |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=cVAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=How+a+policy+of+Freedom+can+be+vigorously+applied&hl=en&ei=5_piTqfSL5PZiAKfn9jMCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=How%20a%20policy%20of%20Freedom%20can%20be%20vigorously%20applied&f=false |page=105 |date=September 20, 1943 |accessdate=09-03-2011}}</ref> [[Thomas Hutchinson (governor)|Thomas Hutchinson]], the former royal governor of Massachusetts, also published a rebuttal.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 74.</ref> These pamphlets challenged various aspects of the Declaration. Hutchinson argued that the American Revolution was the work of a few conspirators who wanted independence from the outset, and who had finally achieved it by inducing otherwise loyal colonists to rebel.<ref>Bailyn, ''Ideological Origins'', 155–56.</ref> Lind's pamphlet had an anonymous attack on the concept of [[natural rights]], written by [[Jeremy Bentham]], an argument which he would repeat during the [[French Revolution]].<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 79–80.</ref> Both pamphlets asked how the American slaveholders in Congress could proclaim that "all men are created equal" without freeing their own slaves.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 76–77.</ref>
Enslaved African Americans also heard the call to liberty and freedom. Tens of thousands of slaves left plantations in the South and farms in the North to join the British lines, or to escape during the disruption of war. The British kept their promise and evacuated thousands of [[Black Loyalists]] with their troops in the closing days of the war, for resettlement as freedmen in Nova Scotia, Jamaica or England. Four to five thousand African Americans served in the Continental Army fighting for American Independence. The revolutionary government freed slaves who enlisted with the Continentals; 5% of George Washington's forces consisted of African-American troops.