Kirenius: Perbedaan revisi

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[[File:Meister der Kahriye-Cami-Kirche in Istanbul 005.jpg|thumb|300px| Perawan [[Maria]] dan [[Santo Yusuf|Yusuf]] mendaftarkan diri untuk sensus di hadapan gubernur Kirenius. Mosaik [[Bizantin]] di gereja Chora, Konstantinopel (Istanbul), 1315-1320.]]
'''Kirenius''' atau nama Romawi lengkapnya '''Publius Sulpicius Quirinius''' ({{lang-el|Κυρήνιος}} ''Kyrenios'' atau ''Cyrenius''; {{lang-en|Quirinius}}) (~51 SM - AD 21) adalah seorang bangsawan Romawi, yang menduduki sejumlah jabatan di pemerintahan Kekaisaran Romawi di abad pertama sebelum Masehi sampai abad pertama sesudah Masehi. Namanya disebut dalam bagian [[Perjanjian Baru]] di [[Alkitab]] [[Kristen]], khususnya dalam [[Injil Lukas]], menyangkut [[Kelahiran Yesus|waktu kelahiran]] [[Yesus]] [[Kristus]]. Kirenius menjadi gubernur di provinsi Romawi Siria dan memerintahkan sensus penduduk. Menurut Yosefus ini terjadi pada waktu ethnarkh [[Arkhelaus]], putra [[Herodes Agung]], dicopot jabatannya, pada tahun 6 M. <ref>[http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-18.htm Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews - Book XVIII]: "Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria, to take an account of their substance..."</ref> Namun ada catatan bahwa Kirenius sebelumnyaditugaskan sudahmengurus pernahmiliter menjabatRomawi sebagaidi gubernurSiria, sementarayang diwilayahnya Siriameliputi sekitarYudea, pada dua masa jabatan: tahun [[6 SM|6 ]]sampai [[4 SM]], dan tahun [[6]] sampai [[9]] M.<ref name="Asimov">Isaac Asimov. Asimov's Guide to the Bible. The New Testament. New York: Doubleday. 1969.</ref>
 
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==Life==
Born in the neighborhood of [[Lanuvium]], a Latin town near Rome, of an undistinguished family, Quirinius followed the normal pathway of service for an ambitious young man of his social class. According to the Roman historian [[Florus]], Quirinius defeated the Marmaridae, a tribe of desert raiders from Cyrenaica, possibly while governor of [[Creta et Cyrenaica|Crete and Cyrene]] around 14 BC, declining however the honorific name Marmaricus.<ref>Erich S. Gruen, 'The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus' in ''The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC - AD 69'', (Cambridge University Press, 1996) page 168.</ref> In 12 BC he was named [[consul]], a sign that he enjoyed the favour of [[Augustus]].
 
==Riwayat==
Some years later, he led a campaign against the Homonadenses, a tribe based in the mountainous region of [[Galatia]] and [[Cilicia]], around 5 - 3 BC, probably as legate of Galatia. He won by reducing their strongholds and starving out the defenders.<ref>Erich S. Gruen, 'The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus' in ''The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC - AD 69'', (Cambridge University Press, 1996) pages 153-154; see also [[Ronald Syme]], ''[[The Roman Revolution]]'', (Oxford University Press, 1939, reissued 2002), page 399. Justin K. Hardin, ''Galatians and the Imperial Cult'', (Mohr Siebeck, 2008) page 56, suggests that it is uncertain whether Quirinius actually served as legate; he may have served only as a military general.</ref> For this victory, he was awarded a [[Roman triumph|triumph]].<ref>Justin K. Hardin, ''Galatians and the Imperial Cult'', (Mohr Siebeck, 2008) page 56.</ref>
BornLahir indi the neighborhood ofdaerah [[Lanuvium]], adekat Latin town near Rome[[Roma]], of andari undistinguishedkeluarga familybiasa, QuiriniusKirenius followedmeniti thekarir normalsebagaimana pathwaypara ofpemuda serviceambisius fordi ankelas ambitious young man of his social classstatusnya. AccordingSejarawan to the Roman historianRomawi [[Florus]], Quiriniusmencatat defeatedbahwa theKirenius mengalahkan orang-orang Marmaridae, asuku tribeperampok ofpadang desertpasir raidersdi fromwilayah ''Cyrenaica'', possiblykemungkinan whilesewaktu governormenjabat ofgubernur [[provinsi ''Creta et Cyrenaica|Crete'' and(Kreta Cyrene]]dan aroundKirene) sekitar [[14 BCSM]], decliningtapi howevermenolak thediberi honorificgelar namekehormatan "Marmaricus".<ref>Erich S. Gruen, 'The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus' in ''The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC - AD 69'', (Cambridge University Press, 1996) page 168.</ref> InTahun [[12 BCSM]] heia was nameddijadikan [[consulkonsul]], atanda signbahwa thatia hedisukai enjoyedoleh the favour ofKaisar [[AugustusAgustus]].
 
SomeSekitar yearstahun later[[5 SM|5 ]]sampai [[3 SM]], heentah ledsebagai a''legate'' campaignGalatia againstatau thehanya Homonadensesseorang jenderal, aia tribememimpin basedtentara inmengalahkan thesuku mountainousHomonadenses, regiondi ofdaerah pegunungan [[Galatia]] anddan [[Cilicia]], arounddengan 5cara mengurangi benteng-benteng 3mereka BC,dan probablymembuat as legate of Galatia. He won by reducing their strongholds and starving out themereka defenderskelaparan.<ref>Erich S. Gruen, 'The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus' in ''The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC - AD 69'', (Cambridge University Press, 1996) pages 153-154; see also [[Ronald Syme]], ''[[The Roman Revolution]]'', (Oxford University Press, 1939, reissued 2002), page 399. Justin K. Hardin, ''Galatians and the Imperial Cult'', (Mohr Siebeck, 2008) page 56, suggests that it is uncertain whether Quirinius actually served as legate; he may have served only as a military general.</ref> ForAtas thiskemenangan victoryini, hedia wasdiberi awardedpenghargaan a [[''Roman triumph|triumph]]''.<ref>Justin K. Hardin, ''Galatians and the Imperial Cult'', (Mohr Siebeck, 2008) page 56.</ref>
By 1 AD, Quirinius was appointed [[rector]] to Augustus' grandson [[Gaius Caesar]], until the latter died from wounds suffered on campaign.<ref>[http://www.livius.org/su-sz/sulpicius/quirinius.html ''Livius.org:'' "P. Sulpicius Quirinius"]</ref> When Augustus' support shifted to his stepson [[Tiberius]], Quirinius entered the latter's camp of followers. Having been married to Claudia Appia, about whom little is known, he divorced her and around 3 AD married [[Aemilia_Lepida#Aemilia_Lepida_.28executed_20.29.2C_daughter_to_Lepidus_the_Younger|Aemilia Lepida]], daughter of [[Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)|Marcus Aemilius Lepidus]] and sister of [[Manius Aemilius Lepidus (consul 11)|Manius Aemilius Lepidus]], who had originally been betrothed to [[Lucius Caesar]].<ref>Robin Seager, ''Tiberius'' (Blackwell Publishing, 2005), page 129.</ref> Within a few years they were divorced; in 20 AD he accused her of claiming that he was her son's father, and later of trying to poison him during their marriage; Tacitus claims that she was popular with the public, who regarded Quirinius as carrying on a prosecution out of spite.<ref>Francesca Santoro L'Hoir, Tragedy, Rhetoric, and the Historiography of Tacitus' Annales (University of Michigan Press, 2006), page 177.</ref>
 
Tahun 1 M, Kirenius ditunjuk menjadi [[rektor]] untuk cucu Agustus, [[Gaius Caesar]], sampai orang muda ini meninggal akibat luka-luka dari perang.<ref>[http://www.livius.org/su-sz/sulpicius/quirinius.html ''Livius.org:'' "P. Sulpicius Quirinius"]</ref> Ketika Agustus mendukung putra tirinya, [[Tiberius]], Kirenius ikut menjadi pendukungnya. Kirenius menikah dengan Claudia Appia, tapi bercerai pada tahun 3 M dan menikah dengan Aemilia_Lepida, putri [[Marcus Aemilius Lepidus]] (salah satu ''triumvir'')) dan saudara perempuan konsul [Manius Aemilius Lepidus]], yang asalnya bertunangan dengan [[Lucius Caesar]].<ref>Robin Seager, ''Tiberius'' (Blackwell Publishing, 2005), page 129.</ref> Beberapa tahun kemudian, mereka bercerai. Tahun 20 M Kirenius menuduhnya berusaha mengklaim bahwa dia ayah dari putra bekas istrinya itu dan bahwa bekas istrinya itu berusaha meracuninya selama perkawinan mereka. Sejarawan [[Tacitus]] mencatat bahwa bekas istrinya ini terkenal di masyarakat, yang menganggap Kirenius menuntut istrinya itu karena merasa tersaingi.<ref>Francesca Santoro L'Hoir, Tragedy, Rhetoric, and the Historiography of Tacitus' Annales (University of Michigan Press, 2006), page 177.</ref>
After the banishment of the ethnarch [[Herod Archelaus]] in 6 AD, [[Judaea (Roman province)|Iudaea]] (the conglomeration of [[Samaria]], [[Judea]] and [[Idumea]]) came under direct Roman administration with [[Coponius]] as [[prefect]]; at the same time Quirinius was appointed [[legatus|Legate]] of Syria, with instructions to assess Iudea Province for taxation purposes.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Hayes |first1=John Haralson |last2=Mandell |first2=Sara R. |title=The Jewish people in classical antiquity: from Alexander to Bar Kochba |url=http://books.google.com/?id=er1Ls6bSQNMC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA101#v=onepage&q |accessdate=June 13, 2010 |year=1998 |publisher=Westminster John Knox Press |location=Louisville, Kentucky |isbn=9780664257279 |pages=[http://%5Bhttp://books.google.com/books?id=er1Ls6bSQNMC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA153#v=onepage&q&f=false 153]-154 |chapter=Chapter 3: The Herodian Period. |quote=Thus in 6 or 7 AD, Augustus commissioned the newly appointed Legate of Syria, Quirinius, to carry out the census}}</ref> One of his first duties was to [[Census of Quirinius|carry out a census]] as part of this.<ref>Erich S. Gruen, 'The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus' in ''The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC - AD 69'', (Cambridge University Press, 1996) pages 157</ref>
 
After the banishment of theSetelah ethnarch [[HerodArkhelaus|Herodes ArchelausArkhelaus]] indicopot jabatannya tahun 6 ADM, [[JudaeaProvinsi (Roman province)|Iudaea]] (thegabungan conglomeration ofwilayah [[Samaria]], [[JudeaYudea]] anddan [[Idumea]]) cameada underdi directbawah Romanpemerintahan administrationlangsung withRomawi dengan [[Coponius]] assebagai [[prefectprefek]]; atsaat theitu sameKirenius timeditunjuk Quiriniusmenjadi was appointed [[''legatus|Legate]]'' ofwilayah SyriaSiria, withdengan instructionsinstruksi tomenilai assessprovinsi IudeaIudaea Provinceuntuk forurusan taxation purposespajak.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Hayes |first1=John Haralson |last2=Mandell |first2=Sara R. |title=The Jewish people in classical antiquity: from Alexander to Bar Kochba |url=http://books.google.com/?id=er1Ls6bSQNMC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA101#v=onepage&q |accessdate=June 13, 2010 |year=1998 |publisher=Westminster John Knox Press |location=Louisville, Kentucky |isbn=9780664257279 |pages=[http://%5Bhttp://books.google.com/books?id=er1Ls6bSQNMC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA153#v=onepage&q&f=false 153]-154 |chapter=Chapter 3: The Herodian Period. |quote=Thus in 6 or 7 AD, Augustus commissioned the newly appointed Legate of Syria, Quirinius, to carry out the census}}</ref> OneSalah ofsatu histugas firstpertamnya dutiesadalah was to [[Census of Quirinius|carry out a census]] as part ofmengadakan thissensus.<ref>Erich S. Gruen, 'The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus' in ''The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC - AD 69'', (Cambridge University Press, 1996) pages 157</ref>
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The Jews already hated their pagan conquerors, and censuses were forbidden under Jewish law. The assessment was greatly resented by the Jews, and open [[revolt]] was prevented only by the efforts of the [[Kohen Gadol|high priest]] Joazar.<ref>[http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=9&letter=Q&search=Quirinius Jewish Encyclopedia: QUIRINIUS, P. SULPICIUS]: "The assessment caused great dissatisfaction among the Jews (ib.), and open revolt was prevented only by the efforts of the high priest Joazar (ib. 2, § 1). The levying of this assessment resulted, moreover, in the revolt of Judas the Galilean and in the formation of the party of the Zealots (Josephus, "B. J." vii. 8, § 1; Lucas, in Acts v. 37). Josephus mentions the assessment in another passage also ("Ant." xx. 5, § 2)."</ref> As it was, the census did trigger the revolt of [[Judas of Galilee]] and the formation of the party of the [[Zealots]], according to Josephus.<ref>H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 274: "Josephus connects the beginnings of the extremist movement [called the Zealots by Josephus] with the census held under the supervision of Quirinius, the legate of Syria, soon after Judea had been converted into a Roman province (6 AD)."</ref>
 
The [[Gospel of Luke]] links the [[nativity of Jesus|birth]] of [[Jesus]] to a "world-wide" census ordered by Augustus carried out while Quirinius was governor of Syria. This is thought to be a reference to the census of Judea in 6/7 AD; however, Luke also, like the [[Gospel of Matthew]], dates the birth to the reign of [[Herod the Great]], who died in 4 BC, ten years before the census of 6 or 7 AD. According to [[Raymond E. Brown]], most modern historians suggest that Luke's account is mistaken.<ref>Raymond Brown, ''Christ in the Gospels of the Liturgical Year'', (Liturgical Press, 2008), page 114. See for example, James Douglas Grant Dunn, Jesus Remembered, (Eerdmans, 2003) p344. Similarly, Erich S. Gruen, 'The expansion of the empire under Augustus', in ''The Cambridge ancient history'' Volume 10, p157, Geza Vermes, ''The Nativity'', Penguin 2006, p.96, [[W. D. Davies]] and [[E. P. Sanders]], 'Jesus from the Jewish point of view', in ''The Cambridge History of Judaism'' ed William Horbury, vol 3: the Early Roman Period, 1984, Anthony Harvey, ''A Companion to the New Testament'' (Cambridge University Press 2004), p221, Meier, John P., [[John P. Meier#A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus|''A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus'']]. Doubleday, 1991, v. 1, p. 213, [[Raymond E. Brown|Brown, Raymond E.]] ''The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke''. London: G. Chapman, 1977, p. 554, [[A. N. Sherwin-White]], pp. 166, 167, [[Fergus Millar]] {{cite conference | first = Fergus | last = Millar | authorlink = Fergus Millar | title = Reflections on the trials of Jesus | booktitle = A Tribute to Geza Vermes: Essays on Jewish and Christian Literature and History (JSOT Suppl. 100) [eds. P.R. Davies and R.T. White] | pages = 355–81 | publisher = JSOT Press | date = 1990 | location = Sheffield}} repr. in {{cite journal | last = Millar | first = Fergus | authorlink = Fergus Millar | title = The Greek World, the Jews, and the East | journal = Rome, the Greek World and the East | volume = 3 | pages = 139–163 | publisher = University of North Carolina Press | year = 2006}}</ref>
 
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Quirinius served as governor of Syria with nominal authority over Iudaea until 12, when he returned to Rome as a close associate of [[Tiberius]]. Nine years later he died and was given a public funeral.
Kirenius memerintah di Siria dengan otoritas nominal atas Yudea sampai tahun 12. Kemudian dia kembali ke Roma, menjadi teman dekat [[Tiberius]]. Dia meninggal 9 tahun kemudian dan mendapat penguburan penghormatan.
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==Referensi==
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