Erasmus Darwin: Perbedaan revisi

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r2.7.2) (bot Menambah: be-x-old:Эразм Дарвін; kosmetik perubahan
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k (r2.7.2) (bot Menambah: be-x-old:Эразм Дарвін; kosmetik perubahan)
[[File:Darwin cutout.gif|thumb|upright|Stone-cast bust of Erasmus Darwin, by [[W. J. Coffee]], c. 1795]]
 
Born at [[Elston]] Hall, [[Nottinghamshire]] near [[Newark-on-Trent]], [[England]], the youngest of seven children of [[Robert Darwin of Elston]] (12 August 1682&ndash;201682–20 November 1754), a lawyer, and his wife Elizabeth Hill (1702&ndash;17971702–1797). The name [[Erasmus (disambiguation)|Erasmus]] had been used by a number of his family and derives from his ancestor [[Erasmus Earle]], Common Sergent of England under [[Oliver Cromwell]].<ref>Burke's ''Landed Gentry'', Darwin ''formerly of'' Downe, 1966</ref> His siblings were:
*[[Robert Waring Darwin of Elston|Robert Darwin]] (17 October 1724&ndash;41724–4 November 1816)
*Elizabeth Darwin (15 September 1725&ndash;81725–8 April 1800)
*William Alvey Darwin (3 October 1726&ndash;71726–7 October 1783)
*Anne Darwin (12 November 1727&ndash;31727–3 August 1813)
*Susannah Darwin (10 April 1729&ndash;291729–29 September 1789)
*John Darwin, rector of Elston (28 September 1730&ndash;241730–24 May 1805)
 
He was educated at [[Chesterfield]] Grammar School, then later at [[St John's College, Cambridge|St John's College]], [[University of Cambridge|Cambridge]].<ref>{{Venn|id=DRWN750E|name=Darwin, Erasmus}}</ref> He obtained his medical education at the [[University of Edinburgh Medical School]]. Whether Darwin ever obtained the formal degree of [[Doctor of Medicine|MD]] is not known.
[[File:Erasmus Darwin - Joseph Wright - 1770.jpg|thumb|Darwin in 1770]]Darwin married twice and had 14 children, including two illegitimate daughters by an employee, and, possibly, at least one further illegitimate daughter.
 
In 1757, he married Mary (Polly) Howard (1740&ndash;17701740–1770). They had four sons and one daughter, two of whom (a son and a daughter) died in infancy:
 
* [[Charles Darwin (1758-1778)]]
* Erasmus Darwin II (1759&ndash;17991759–1799)
* Elizabeth Darwin (1763, survived 4 months)
* [[Robert Waring Darwin]] (1766&ndash;18481766–1848), father of the naturalist Charles Darwin
* William Alvey Darwin (1767, survived 19 days)
 
The first Mrs. Darwin died in 1770. A [[governess]], Mary Parker, was hired to look after Robert. By late 1771, employer and employee had become intimately involved and together they had two illegitimate daughters:
* Susanna Parker (1772&ndash;18561772–1856)
* Mary Parker Jr (1774&ndash;18591774–1859)
 
Susanna and Mary Jr later established a [[boarding school]] for girls. In 1782, Mary Sr (the governess) married Joseph Day (1745&ndash;18111745–1811), a Birmingham merchant, and moved away.
 
Darwin may have fathered another child, this time with a married woman. A Lucy Swift gave birth in 1771 to a baby, also named Lucy, who was christened a daughter of her mother and William Swift, but there is reason to believe the father was really Darwin.<ref>[http://www.darwinproject.ac.uk/namedef-2106 Lucy Hardcastle, 1771-c1835]</ref> Lucy Jr. married John Hardcastle in [[Derby]] in 1792 and their daughter, Mary, married [[Francis Boott]], the physician.
 
In 1775, Darwin met Elizabeth Pole, daughter of [[Charles Colyear, 2nd Earl of Portmore]], and wife of Colonel [[Edward Pole]] (1718&ndash;17801718–1780); but as she was married, Darwin could only make his feelings known for her through poetry. When Edward Pole died, Darwin married Elizabeth and moved to her home, [[Radbourne Hall]], four miles (6&nbsp;km) west of Derby. The hall and village are these days known as [[Radbourne]]. In 1782, they moved to Full Street, Derby. They had four sons, one of whom died in infancy, and three daughters:
 
* Edward Darwin (1782&ndash;18291782–1829)
* Frances Ann Violetta Darwin (1783&ndash;18741783–1874), married [[Samuel Tertius Galton]], was the mother of [[Francis Galton]]
* Emma Georgina Elizabeth Darwin (1784&ndash;18181784–1818)
* Sir [[Francis Sacheverel Darwin]] (1786&ndash;18591786–1859)
* John Darwin (1787&ndash;18181787–1818)
* Henry Darwin (1789&ndash;17901789–1790), died in infancy.
* Harriet Darwin (1790&ndash;18251790–1825), married Admiral [[Thomas James Malling]]
 
=== Death ===
 
=== Zoönomia ===
Darwin's most important scientific work is ''[[Zoönomia]]'' (1794&ndash;17961794–1796), contains a system of [[pathology]], and a chapter on '[[Generation]]'. In the latter, he anticipated some of the views of [[Jean-Baptiste Lamarck]], which foreshadowed the modern theory of [[evolution]]. Erasmus Darwin's works were read and commented on by his grandson [[Charles Darwin]] the naturalist. Erasmus Darwin based his theories on [[David Hartley (philosopher)|David Hartley]]'s psychological theory of [[associationism]].<ref>Allen, Richard C. 1999. ''David Hartley on human nature''. Albany, N.Y.: [[SUNY Press]]. ISBN 0-7914-4233-0</ref> The essence of his views is contained in the following passage, which he follows up with the conclusion that one and the same kind of living filament is and has been the cause of all organic life:
 
<blockquote>Would it be too bold to imagine, that in the great length of time, since the earth began to exist, perhaps millions of ages before the commencement of the history of mankind, would it be too bold to imagine, that all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which <small>THE GREAT FIRST CAUSE</small> endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions, and associations; and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down those improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end! <ref>[http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15707/15707-h/15707-h.htm#sect_XXXIX Erasmus Darwin, ''Zoonomia'': Project Gurenberg text XXIX.4.8]</ref> </blockquote>
Darwin also established a lifelong friendship with [[Benjamin Franklin]], who shared Darwin's support for the American and French revolutions. The Lunar Society was instrumental as an intellectual driving force behind England's [[Industrial Revolution]].
 
The members of the Lunar Society, and especially Darwin, [[abolitionism|opposed the slave trade]]. He attacked it in ''The Botanic Garden (1789&ndash;17911789–1791)'', and in ''The Loves of Plants (1789)'' and ''The Economy of Vegetation (1791)''.
 
== Other activities ==
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==Further reading==
* Darwin, Erasmus. (1794-6). ''Zoonomia''. J. Johnson (reissued by [[Cambridge University Press]], 2009; ISBN 9781108005494978-1-108-00549-4)
*King-Hele, Desmond. 1963. ''Doctor Darwin''. Scribner's, N.Y.
*King-Hele, Desmond. 1977. ''Doctor of Revolution: the life and genius of Erasmus Darwin''. Faber, London.
{{commons}}
{{wikiquote}}
* {{gutenberg author| id=Erasmus+Darwin | name=Erasmus Darwin}}
* {{en}} [http://www.erasmusdarwin.org Erasmus Darwin House, Lichfield]
* {{en}} [http://www.revolutionaryplayers.org.uk/home.stm Revolutionary Players website]
* {{en}} [http://pages.britishlibrary.net/charles.darwin3/erasmus.html "Preface and 'a preliminary notice'" by Charles Darwin] in Ernst Krause, ''Erasmus Darwin'' (1879)
* {{Cite EB1911|wstitle=Darwin, Erasmus}}
 
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[[be:Эразм Дарвін]]
[[be-x-old:Эразм Дарвін]]
[[bn:ইরাসমাস ডারউইন]]
[[ca:Erasmus Darwin]]
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