Lingkungan dan orientasi seksual: Perbedaan revisi

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(←Membuat halaman berisi '{{Orientasi seksual}} The study of the '''environment and sexual orientation''' is research into possible environmental influences on the development of human sexua...')
 
{{Orientasi seksual}}
 
TheStudi study of themengenai '''environmentlingkungan anddan sexualorientasi orientationseksual''' isadalah researchpenelitian intoyang possiblemencari environmentalkemungkinan influencespengaruh onlingkungan thedalam development of humanpembentukan [[sexualorientasi orientationseksual]]. SomeBeberapa researcherspeneliti distinguishmembedakan environmentalantara influencespengaruh fromlingkungan hormonaldengan influencespengaruh hormonal,<ref name="pediatrics2004">{{cite journal|doi=10.1542/peds.113.6.1827 |author=Frankowski BL|author2=American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence|title=Sexual orientation and adolescents |journal=[[Pediatrics (journal)|Pediatrics]]|volume=113 |issue=6 |pages=1827–32 |date=June 2004|pmid=15173519|url=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/113/6/1827.long}}</ref> whilesementara othersyang includelain biologicalmemasukkan influencespengaruh suchbiologis asseperti [[PrenatalHormon hormonesprenatal anddan sexualorientasi orientationseksual|hormon prenatal hormones]] assebagai partbagian ofdari environmentalpengaruh influenceslingkungan.<ref name="Sweden">{{cite journal|first=Niklas|last=Långström |author2=Qazi Rahman |author3=Eva Carlström |author4=Paul Lichtenstein|title=Genetic and Environmental Effects on Same-sex Sexual Behaviour: A Population Study of Twins in Sweden|publisher=Archives of Sexual Behavior|date=7 June 2008
|doi=10.1007/s10508-008-9386-1|pmid=18536986|journal=Archives of Sexual Behavior|volume=39|issue=1|pages=75–80}}
</ref>
 
ScientistsIlmuwan dotidak nottahu knowpasti theapa exactyang causemenyebabkan oforientasi sexual orientationseksual, buttetapi theymereka theorizeberteori thatbahwa itini isadalah thehasil resultdari ofpengaruh akompleks complex interplay ofantara [[Genetics|geneticgenetik]], [[hormonal]], anddan environmentalpengaruh influenceslingkungan.<ref name="Frankowski">{{cite journal |doi=10.1542/peds.113.6.1827 |author=Frankowski BL|author2=American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence|title=Sexual orientation and adolescents |journal=[[Pediatrics (journal)|Pediatrics]]|volume=113 |issue=6 |pages=1827–32 |date=June 2004|pmid=15173519|url=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/113/6/1827.long}}</ref><ref name="Lamanna">{{cite book|author=Mary Ann Lamanna|author2=Agnes Riedmann|author3=Susan D Stewart|title=Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society|publisher=[[Cengage Learning]]|isbn=1305176898|year=2014|page=82|accessdate=January 11, 2016|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fofaAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA82|quote=The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established &nbsp;– nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychology Association 2010).}}</ref><ref name="Stuart">{{cite book|author=Gail Wiscarz Stuart|title=Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing|publisher=[[Elsevier Health Sciences]]|isbn=032329412X|year=2014|page=502|accessdate=January 11, 2016|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ivALBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA502|quote=No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation.}}</ref> UnlikeTidak seperti [[sexualidentitas orientationorientasi identityseksual]], theymereka dotidak notmelihat vieworientasi sexualseksual orientationsebagai assebuah a choicepilihan.<ref name="Frankowski"/><ref name="Lamanna"/><ref name="Kersey-Matusiak">{{cite book|author=Gloria Kersey-Matusiak|title=Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care|publisher=[[Springer Publishing Company]]|isbn=0826193811|year=2012|page=169|accessdate=January 10, 2016|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X8O_wGedAYoC&pg=PA169|quote=Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.'}}</ref>
 
HypothesesHipotesis forbahwa thelingkungan impactsosial ofpascalahir theberdampak post-natalpada socialorientasi environmentseksual on sexual orientation areadalah weaklemah, especiallyterutama forbagi maleslaki-laki.<ref name="Bailey1">{{cite journal|vauthors=Bailey JM, Vasey PL, Diamond LM, Breedlove SM, Vilain E, Epprecht M|title=Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science |journal=[[Psychological Science in the Public Interest]]|volume=17|issue=21|date=2016|doi=10.1177/1529100616637616|PMID=27113562|pages=45-101}}</ref> AlthoughMeskipun theretidak isada nobukti substantialkuat evidenceyang whichberpendapat suggestsbahwa parentingpengasuhan ororang earlytua childhoodatau experiencespengalaman playkanak-kanak aawal roleberperan indalam sexualorientasi orientationseksual,<ref name="AmPsychiAssn-Sexual orientation">{{Cite web|title=Sexual Orientation|publisher=[[American Psychiatric Association]]|accessdate=January 1, 2013|url=http://healthyminds.org/More-Info-For/GayLesbianBisexuals.aspx|archivedate=July 22, 2011|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110722080052/http://www.healthyminds.org/More-Info-For/GayLesbianBisexuals.aspx}}</ref><ref name="rcp2007">{{cite web |url=http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/workinpsychiatry/specialinterestgroups/gaylesbian/submissiontothecofe.aspx |title=Submission to the Church of England’s Listening Exercise on Human Sexuality |publisher=The Royal College of Psychiatrists|accessdate=13 June 2013}}</ref> beberapa somestudi studiestelah havemenghubungkan linkedpengasuhan parentingorang ortua familialdengan environment toidentitas [[non-heterosexualheteroseksual]] identities,<ref name="Sweden"/><ref name=Parenting2010>{{cite journal|last1=Schumm|first1=Walter R.|title=CHILDREN OF HOMOSEXUALS MORE APT TO BE HOMOSEXUALS? A REPLY TO MORRISON AND TO CAMERON BASED ON AN EXAMINATION OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF DATA|journal=Journal of Biosocial Science|date=November 2010|volume=42|issue=06|doi=10.1017/S0021932010000325|url=http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7907017&fileId=S0021932010000325|accessdate=6 September 2014|pmid=20642872|pages=721–42}}</ref> as well asserta [[childhoodnonkonformitas gender nonconformitymasa kanak-kanak]] anddan [[homosexualityhomoseksualitas]].<ref name="Bearman">{{cite journal|last=Bearman
|first=Peter|author2=Brückner, Hannah|year=2002|title=Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction|journal=American Journal of Sociology|volume=107|url=http://www.soc.duke.edu/~jmoody77/205a/ecp/bearman_bruckner_ajs.pdf|format=PDF|pages=1179–1205|doi=10.1086/341906}}</ref><ref name=Bem2008>{{cite journal|last1=Bem|first1=Daryl|title=Is There a Causal Link Between Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Adult Homosexuality?|journal=Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health|date=11 Oct 2008|volume=12|issue=1-2|pages=61–79|doi=10.1300/J529v12n01_05|url=http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J529v12n01_05|accessdate=10 September 2014}}</ref><ref name="Rieger">{{cite journal |vauthors=Rieger G, Linsenmeier JA, Gygax L, Bailey JM |title=Sexual orientation and childhood gender nonconformity: evidence from home videos |journal=Dev Psychol |volume=44 |issue=1 |pages=46–58 |date=Jan 2008 |pmid=18194004 |doi=10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.46 }}</ref>
 
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