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Sedia gestatoria: Perbedaan antara revisi

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[[Berkas:Sedia gestatoria pope Pius VII Restored.jpg|thumb|''Sedia gestatoria''yang digunakan untuk menandu [[Paus Pius VII]], dipajang dalam sebuah pameran di [[Istana Versailles]]]]
'''''Sedia gestatiora''''' ({{IPA-it|ˈsɛːdja dʒestaˈtɔːrja|}}, frasa [[bahasa Italia]] yang secara harfiah berarti "kursi usungan") adalah [[takhta|kursi]] yang digunakan untuk menandu para [[paus (Katolik Roma)|paus]] sampai 1978, dan di kemudian hari tergantikan oleh [[mobil paus|''papamobile'']]. Kursi usungan ini adalah sebuah kursi berlengan yang dihias dengan indah, dilapisi kain sutra, dipautkan pada sebuah lapik persegi dengan dua gelang logam pada masing-masing sisinya sebagai tempat memasang gandar, dan dipikul oleh dua belas orang penandu (''[[sediari|palafrenieri]]'') berpakaian seragamberseragam merah. Di masa lampau, sebelum kursi usungan ini mulai digunakan, para paus (misalnya [[Paus Stefanus III]]) diusung dalam arak-arakan dengan cara dijulang.<ref>''The Lives and Times of the Popes'', Jld. 2, hlm. 69</ref>
''Sedia gestatoria'' merupakan salah satu variasi dari [[tandu|joli]]. Dua buah kipas besar (''[[flabellum|flabella]]'') yang terbuat dari bulu [[burung unta]] putih &mdash;sisa-sisa dari penggunaan ''[[flabellum]]'' dalam liturgi di masa lampau, seperti yang disebutkan dalam ''Constitutiones Apostolicae''<ref>''Constitutiones Apostolicae'', VIII, 12</ref>&mdash; dibawa serta mendampingi ''sedia gestatoria'' dalam arak-arakan.
 
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[[Takhta]] seremonial ini digunakan untuk menandu para paus saat memasuki dan meninggalkan [[Basilika Santo Yohanes Lateran]] dan [[Basilika Santo Petrus]] yang biasanya dijadikan tempat pelaksanaan upacara-upacara kepausan. ''Sedia gestatoria'' telah menjadi bagian yang tak terpisahkan dari upacara-upacara kepausan selama hampir satu [[milenium]] ini. Pemakaian ''sedia gestatoria'' diduga berasal dari kebiasaan di [[Kekaisaran Romawi Timur|Kekaisaran Bizantium]] untuk menandu para kaisar Bizantium dengan cara dan sarana yang serupa, namun banyak pula sumber rujukan yang menunjukkan bahwa tradisi ini mungkin berasal upacara-upacara yang berkaitan dengan kepemimpinan [[Kekaisaran Romawi|Imperium Romawi]] kuno.
 
<!--It was used in the solemn ceremonies of the [[Papal Coronation|coronation]] of a new pope until the enthronement ceremony was abandoned altogether. It also was used for solemn entries of the pope to St. Peter's or to public consistories. In the first case, three bundles of [[tow]] were burnt before the newly elected pontiff, who sits on the ''sedia gestatoria'', while a master of ceremonies says: "''Pater Sancte, [[sic transit gloria mundi]]''" (Holy Father, so passes the glory of the world). The custom of carrying the newly elected pope, and formerly in some countries, a newly elected bishop to his church, can be traced back centuries and is comparable with the Roman use of the ''[[curule chair|sella curulis]]'', on which newly elected [[consul]]s were carried through the city.<ref>{{CathEncy|wstitle=Sedia Gestatoria}}</ref>
The ceremonial [[throne]] was mainly used to carry popes to and from papal ceremonies in the [[Basilica of St. John Lateran]] and [[St. Peter's Basilica]]. The ''sedia'' was used as part of papal ceremony for nearly a [[millennium]]. Its origins are sometimes thought to date back to the [[Byzantine Empire]] where Byzantine emperors were carried along in a similar manner, but many sources indicate the use of the sedia is of a much earlier date, probably being derived from rituals accompanying the leadership of the ancient [[Roman Empire]].
 
It was used in the solemn ceremonies of the [[Papal Coronation|coronation]] of a new pope until the enthronement ceremony was abandoned altogether. It also was used for solemn entries of the pope to St. Peter's or to public consistories. In the first case, three bundles of [[tow]] were burnt before the newly elected pontiff, who sits on the ''sedia gestatoria'', while a master of ceremonies says: "''Pater Sancte, [[sic transit gloria mundi]]''" (Holy Father, so passes the glory of the world). The custom of carrying the newly elected pope, and formerly in some countries, a newly elected bishop to his church, can be traced back centuries and is comparable with the Roman use of the ''[[curule chair|sella curulis]]'', on which newly elected [[consul]]s were carried through the city.<ref>{{CathEncy|wstitle=Sedia Gestatoria}}</ref>
 
[[Magnus Felix Ennodius]], [[Bishop of Pavia]], records in his "Apologia pro Synodo", ''Gestatoriam sellam apostolicae confessionis'',<ref>Migne (1882), ''[[Patrologia Latina]]'', LXIII, 206; "Corpus Script. eccl.", VI, Vienna, at 328</ref> alluding to the [[Chair of Saint Peter|Cathedra S. Petri]], still preserved in the choir of St. Peter's at Rome. This is a portable wooden armchair, inlaid with ivory, with two iron rings on each side.
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