Giambattista Vico

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Giambattista Vico
Portrait
Potret karya Francesco Solimena
Lahir(1668-06-23)23 Juni 1668
Napoli, Kerajaan Napoli
Meninggal23 Januari 1744(1744-01-23) (umur 75)
Napoli, Kerajaan Napoli
KebangsaanNapoli / Italia
EraFilsafat abad ke-18
Aliranhistorisisme
Minat utamaretorika, filsafat politik, epistemologi, filsafat sejarah, yurisprudensi
Karya terkenalPrincipî di Scienza Nuova
De antiquissima Italorum sapientia
Gagasan pentingverum esse ipsum factum
AlmamaterUniversitas Napoli
(LL.D., 1694)
InstitusiUniversitas Napoli

Giambattista Vico (lahir Giovan Battista Vico /ˈvk/, bahasa Italia: [ˈviko]; 23 Juni 1668 – 23 Januari 1744) adalah filsuf politik, retorikawan, sejarawan, dan ahli hukum Italia pada Zaman Pencerahan. Ia mengkritik pengembangan rasionalisme modern, membela era klasik, merintis pola pikir sistematis dan kompleks, menentang analisis Kartesius dan segala macam reduksionisme, dan memperkenalkan dasar-dasar ilmu sosial dan semiotika.

Aforisme Verum esse ipsum factum ("Sesuatu yang benar adalah sesuatu yang diwujudkan") yang dicetuskan oleh Vico merupakan awal dari epistemologi konstruktivis.[1][2] Ia membangun filsafat sejarah modern. Meski istilah filsafat sejarah tidak tercantum dalam tulisan-tulisannya, Vico juga membahas "sejarah filsafat yang diceritakan secara filosofis."[3] Walaupun Vico bukan penganut historisisme, para peneliti modern yang mempelajari karya-karya Vico terinspirasi oleh penganut historisisme seperti Isaiah Berlin, sejarawan gagasan,[4] Edward Said, kritikus sastra, dan Hayden White, metasejarawan.[5][6]

Magnum opus intelektual Vico adalah buku Scienza Nuova (1725, Ilmu Baru) yang mencoba menata humaniora secara sistematis menjadi ilmu tunggal yang merekam dan menjelaskan siklus-siklus sejarah bangkitnya dan runtuhnya peradaban.[7]

Karya[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Opere di G.B. Vico. Fausto Nicolini (ed.), Bari: Laterza, 1911-41.
  • De Antiquissima Italorum Sapientia ex Linguae Originibus Eruenda Librir Tres (On the Most Ancient Wisdom of the Italians Unearthed from the Origins of the Latin Language). 1710, Palmer, L.M., trans. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1988.
  • Institutiones Oratoriae (The Art of Rhetoric). 1711-1741, Pinton, Girogio, and Arthur W. Shippee, trans. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi B.V., 1984.* "On Humanistic Education", trans. Giorgio A. Pinton and Arthur W. Shippee. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1993.
  • On the Study Methods of Our Time, trans. Elio Gianturco. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1990.
  • Universal right (Diritto universale). Translated from Latin and Edited by Giorgio Pinton and Margaret Diehl. Amsterdam/New York, Rodopi, 2000
  • On the Most Ancient Wisdom of the Italians: Unearthed from the Origins of the Latin Language, trans. L.M. Palmer. Ithaca, Cornell UP, 1988.
  • Scienza Nuova (The First New Science). 1725, Pompa, Leon, trans. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002.
  • The New Science of Giambattista Vico, (1744). trans. Thomas G. Bergin and Max H. Fisch. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2nd ed. 1968.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Ernst von Glasersfeld, An Introduction to Radical Constructivism.
  2. ^ Bizzell and Herzberg, The Rhetorical Tradition, p. 800.
  3. ^ The contemporary interpretation of Vico is by Verene, Donald Philip. See: "Giambattista Vico" (2002), A Companion to Early Modern Philosophy, Steven M. Nadler, ed. London:Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21800-9, p. 570.
  4. ^ Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas
  5. ^ Giambattista Vico (1976), "The Topics of History: The Deep Structure of the New Science", in Giorgio Tagliacozzo and Donald Philip Verene, eds, "Science of Humanity", Baltimore and London:1976.
  6. ^ Giambattista Vico: An International Symposium. Giorgio Tagliacozzo and Hayden V. White, eds. Johns Hopkins University Press: 1969. Attempts to inaugurate a non-historicist interpretation of Vico are in Interpretation: A Journal of Political Philosophy [1], Spring 2009, Vol. 36.2, and Spring 2010 37.3; and in Historia Philosophica, Vol. 11, 2013 [2].
  7. ^ The Penguin Encyclopedia (2006), David Crystal, ed., p. 1,409.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Andreacchio, Marco. "Autobiography as History of Ideas: an Intimate Reading of Vico's Vita (from «Lord Vico» to «The Names of Law»)" in Historia Philosophica: An International Journal. Vol. 11.
  • Bedani, Gino. Vico Revisited: Orthodoxy, Naturalism and Science in the Scienza Nuova. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1989.
  • Berlin, Isaiah. Vico and Herder. Two Studies in the History of Ideas. London, 1976.
  • Berlin, Isaiah. Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder. London and Princeton, 2000.
  • Bizzell, Patricia, and Bruce Herzberg. The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Macmillan; Boston, Ma: Bedford Books of St Martin's Press, 2001. Pp. Xv, 1673. (First Ed. 1990). 2001.
  • Colilli, Paul. Vico and the Archives of Hermetic Reason. Welland, Ont.: Editions Soleil, 2004.
  • Croce, Benedetto. The Philosophy of Giambattista Vico. Trans. R.G. Collingwood. London: Howard Latimer, 1913.
  • Danesi, Marcel. Vico, Metaphor, and the Origin of Language. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1993
  • Fabiani, Paolo, "The Philosophy of the Imagination in Vico and Malebranche". F.U.P. (Florence UP), Italian edition 2002, English edition 2009.
  • Fisch, Max, and Thomas G. Bergin, trans. Vita di Giambattista Vico (The Autobiography of Giambattista Vico). 1735-41. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1963.
  • Giannantonio, Valeria. Oltre Vico – L'identità del passato a Napoli e Milano tra '700 e '800, Carabba Editore, Lanciano, 2009.
  • Gould, Rebecca Ruth. “Democracy and the Vernacular Imagination in Vico’s Plebian Philology,” History of Humanities 3.2 (2018): 247–277.
  • Grassi, Ernesto. Vico and Humanism: Essays on Vico, Heidegger, and Rhetoric. New York: Peter Lang, 1990.
  • Hösle, Vittorio. "Vico und die Idee der Kulturwissenschaft" in Prinzipien einer neuen Wissenschaft über die gemeinsame Natur der Völker, Ed. V. Hösle and C. Jermann, Hamburg: F. Meiner, 1990, pp. XXXI-CCXCIII
  • Levine, Joseph. Giambattista Vico and the Quarrel between the Ancients and the Moderns. Journal of the History of Ideas 52.1(1991): 55-79.
  • Lilla, Mark. G. B. Vico: The Making of an Anti-Modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.
  • Mazzotta, Giuseppe. The New Map of the World: The Poetic Philosophy of Giambattista Vico. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
  • Miner, Robert. Vico, Genealogist of Modernity. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002.
  • Schaeffer, John. Sensus Communis: Vico, Rhetoric, and the Limits of Relativism. Durham: Duke UP, 1990.
  • Verene, Donald. Vico's Science of Imagination. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1981.
  • Verene, Molly Black "Vico: A Bibliography of Works in English from 1884 to 1994." Philosophy Documentation Center, 1994.
  • Alain Pons, Vie et mort des Nations. Lecture de la Science nouvelle de Giambattista Vico, L'Esprit de la Cité, Gallimard, 2015

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Sejarah teologi Katolik