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Gereja nasional

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Sebuah gereja paroki Gereja Denmark di Holte, dengan Dannebrog berkibar di halaman depan

Gereja nasional adalah sebuah gereja Kristen yang diasosiasikan dengan kelompok etnis atau negara kebangsaan tertentu. Gagasan tersebut utamanya dibahas pada abad ke-19, saat timbul nasionalisme modern.

Negara dengan gereja nasional[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara Gereja nasional Denominasi
 Albania Gereja Ortodoks Albania Ortodoks Timur
 Argentina Gereja Katolik di Argentina[1] Katolik Roma
 Armenia Gereja Apostolik Armenia[2] Ortodoks Oriental
 Austria Gereja Katolik di Austria[3] Katolik Roma
 Brasil Gereja Katolik di Brasil[4][5] Katolik Roma
 Bulgaria Gereja Ortodoks Bulgaria[6] Orthodoks Timur
 Siprus Gereja Siprus Ortodoks Timur
 Denmark Gereja Denmark[7] Lutheran
 Inggris Gereja Inggris[8] Anglikan
 Mesir Gereja Ortodoks Koptik Aleksandria[9] Ortodoks Oriental
 Estonia Gereja Lutheran Injili Estonia[10] Lutheran
 Etiopia Gereja Ortodoks Tewahedo Etiopia[11] Ortodoks Oriental
 Kepulauan Faroe Gereja Kepulauan Faroe[12] Lutheran
 Finlandia Gereja Lutheran Injili Finlandia[13] & Gereja Ortodoks Finlandia[14] Lutheran & Ortodoks Timur
 Prancis Gereja Katolik di Prancis Katolik Roma
 Georgia Gereja Ortodoks Georgia[15] Ortodoks Timur
 Jerman Gereja Injili Jerman[16] & Gereja Katolik[16] Protestan[a] & Katolik Roma
 Yunani Gereja Yunani[17] Ortodoks Timur
 Islandia Gereja Islandia[18] Lutheran
 India Nasrani Katolik Timur dan Ortodoks Oriental
 Liechtenstein Gereja Katolik di Liechtenstein[19] Katolik Roma
 Malta Gereja Katolik di Malta [20] Katolik Roma
 Meksiko Gereja Katolik di Meksiko[21][22][23] Katolik Roma
 Irlandia Utara Gereja Irlandia Anglikan
 Republik Irlandia Gereja Katolik di Irlandia Katolik Roma
 Italia Gereja Katolik di Italia Katolik Roma
 Lebanon Gereja Maronit[24] Katolik Timur
 Makedonia Gereja Ortodoks Makedonia[25] Ortodoks Timur
  Monako Gereja Katolik di Monako[26] Katolik Roma
 Norwegia Gereja Norwegia[27] Lutheran
 Peru Gereja Katolik di Peru[28] Katolik Roma
 Polandia Gereja Katolik di Polandia[29][30][31][32] Katolik Roma
 Portugal Gereja Katolik di Portugal Katolik Roma
 Filipina Gereja Katolik di Filipina[33] Katolik Roma
 Rumania Gereja Ortodoks Rumania Ortodoks Timur
 Rusia Gereja Ortodoks Rusia[34] Ortodoks Timur
 Skotlandia Gereja Skotlandia[35] Reformed
 Serbia Gereja Ortodoks Serbia[36] Ortodoks Timur
 Spanyol Gereja Katolik di Spanyol [37] Katolik Roma
 Swedia Gereja Swedia[38] Lutheran
 Tuvalu Gereja Tuvalu[39] Reformed
 Ukraina Gereja Ortodoks Ukraina,[40] Gereja Katolik Yunani Ukraina Ortodoks Timur, Katolik Timur

Kritik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Karl Barth mengecam penekanan "nasionalisasi" Allah Kristen sebagai kesesatan, khususnya dalam konteks gereja nasional yang memaklumkan perang melawan negara Kristen lain pada Perang Dunia I.[41]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Protestan Bersatu (Lutheran & Reformed), Lutheran, dan Reformed

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ SJ, Gustavo Morello (1 July 2015). The Catholic Church and Argentina's Dirty War. Oxford University Press. hlm. 4. ISBN 9780190273002. The "re-establishing" of Catholicism as a national Church was the reward for the bishops's silence. 
  2. ^ Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. hlm. 53. ISBN 9781438110257. The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes referred to as the Gregorian Armenian Church by Western scholars, serves as the national church of the Armenian people. 
  3. ^ David Bowman, William (1 December 1999). Priest and Parish in Vienna: 1780 to 1880. Boston, MA : Humanities Press. hlm. 1. ISBN 9780391040946. The Catholic Church was one of the principal forces that could help keep the lands of Habsburg monarchy together throughout its long history. Catholicism was not only the traditional religion of much of Austrian society, 
  4. ^ The Catholic Church in Brazil https://rlp.hds.harvard.edu/faq/catholic-church-brazil Diarsipkan 2020-09-21 di Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "Yet the national church appeared to agree upon the approach to pre-influence and it behaved accordingly. The Brazilian Church was socially more advanced than any other Latin America Church" The Political Transformation Of the Brazilian Catholic Church Thomas Bruneau - Umi Out-of-print Books on Demand - 1989
  6. ^ Hall, Richard C. (1 January 2012). The Modern Balkans: A History. Reaktion Books. hlm. 51. ISBN 9781780230061. While this did not restore the Ohrid patriarchate, it did acknowledge the separation between the Orthodox church in Constantinople and the Bulgarian Orthodox church, which was now free to develop as the Bulgarian national church. 
  7. ^ Venbrux, Eric; Quartier, Thomas; Venhorst, Claudia; Brenda Mathijssen (September 2013). Changing European Death Ways. LIT Verlag Münster. hlm. 178. ISBN 9783643900678. Simultaneously the church tax, ministers being public servants, and the status of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark as the national church indicate that the state lends its support to the church. 
  8. ^ Britannicus (1834). The Church of England. hlm. 17. Having, in my last, arrive at the great points which I wished to establish--the apostolicity, independence, and authority of the Church of England; and that she is necessarily the National Church, because Christianity is the National Religion. 
  9. ^ Makari, Peter E. (2007). Conflict & Cooperation: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Egypt. Syracuse University Press. hlm. 42. ISBN 9780815631446. The Coptic Orthodox Church is the historic, and national, church of Egypt and is deeply tied to a monastic tradition of spiritual growth and preparation for ministry of monks and nuns, a tradition that continues to thrive. 
  10. ^ Elvy, Peter (1991). Opportunities and Limitations in Religious Broadcasting. Edinburgh: CTPI. hlm. 23. ISBN 9781870126151. Denominationally Estonia is Lutheran. During the time of national independence (1918-1940), 80% of the population belonged to the Lutheran National Church, about 17% were Orthodox Christians and the rest belonged to Free Churches. 
  11. ^ Lorance, Cody (2008). Ethnographic Chicago. hlm. 140. ISBN 9780615218625. Her findings show that the development of the national church of Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, which began in the fourth century and made Christianity the state religion of Ethiopia, was also a major contributor to national development in the fields of independence, social progress, national unity and empowerment, literary development, arts, architecture, music, publication, and declaration of a national language and leadership, both spiritually and military. 
  12. ^ Proctor, James (13 May 2013). Faroe Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. hlm. 19. ISBN 9781841624563. Religion is important to the Faroese and 84% of the population belongs to the established national church in the islands, the Evangelical—Lutheran Foroya Kirkja, which has 61 churches in the Faroes and three out of every four marriages are held in one. 
  13. ^ Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Britanncia Educational Publishing. 1 June 2013. hlm. 77. ISBN 9781615309955. One of Finland's national churches is the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Evankelis—luterilainen—kirkko), or simply the Church of Finland. 
  14. ^ Kaplan, Robert B.; Baldauf, Richard B. (2005). Language Planning and Policy in Europe. Multilingual Matters. hlm. 147. ISBN 9781853598111. Currently, a clear majority of the population belongs to the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church, and 1% of the population are members of the other national church, the Finnish Orthodox Church (see Table 7). 
  15. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (21 September 2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. ABC-CLIO. hlm. 1195. ISBN 9781598842043. The Georgian Orthodox Church (GOC) is the Eastern Orthodox Christian body that serves as the national church of the Caucasian country of Georgia. The great majority of Georgians are members of the church. 
  16. ^ a b Gelder, Craig Van (2008). The Missional Church and Denominations. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. hlm. 71. ISBN 9780802863584. Germany's two churches (the National Church for the Protestants and the Roman Catholic Church) were “proper”with respect to their polities. 
  17. ^ Miller, James Edward (2009). The United States and the Making of Modern Greece: History and Power, 1950-1974. Univ of North Carolina Press. hlm. 12. ISBN 9780807832479. The creation of a national church of Greece, which the patriarch reluctantly recognized in 1850, set a pattern for other emerging Balkan states to form national churches independent of Constantinople. 
  18. ^ Wilcox, Jonathan; Latif, Zawiah Abdul (1 September 2006). Iceland. Marshall Cavendish. hlm. 85. ISBN 9780761420743. The National Church of Iceland, formally called the Evangelical-Lutheran Church, is the state religion, and the president of Iceland is its supreme authority. 
  19. ^ "The Roman Catholic Church is the State Church and as such enjoys the full protection of the State; other confessions shall be entitled to practise their creeds and to hold religious services to the extent consistent with morality and public order." Constitution Religion. di Wayback Machine (diarsipkan tanggal 26 March 2009) (archived from the original on 2009-03-26).
  20. ^ "Constitution of Malta (Article 2)". mjha.gov.mt. [pranala nonaktif permanen]
  21. ^ Ricardo Hernández-Forcada, "The Effect of International Treaties on Religious Freedom in Mexico". 2002 BYU L. Rev. 301(202).<l. 35, Issue 4.
  22. ^ Roberto Blancarte, "Recent Changes in Church-State Relations in Mexico: An Historical Approach." Journal of Church & State, Autumn 1993, Vo-559 (1996).
  23. ^ "Mexico Is Home To World's Second Largest Catholic Population". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2023-03-30. Diakses tanggal 2019-08-27. 
  24. ^ Ajami, Fouad (30 May 2012). The Syrian Rebellion. Hoover Press. hlm. 70. ISBN 9780817915063. The Maronite Church is a national church. Its creed is attachment to Lebanon and its independence. The founding ethos of the Maronites is their migration from the Syrian plains to the freedom and “purity” of their home in Mount Lebanon. 
  25. ^ Rae, Heather (15 August 2002). State Identities and the Homogenisation of Peoples. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 278. ISBN 9780521797085. The creation of a national Church was also central to building national identity, with the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC) established in 1967, much to the outrage of the Serbian Orthodox Church. 
  26. ^ Joshua Project (2018). "Ethnic People Groups of Monaco". Joshua Project. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2013-11-05. Diakses tanggal 21 December 2018. 
  27. ^ Cristofori, Rinaldo; Ferrari, Silvio (28 February 2013). Law and Religion in the 21st Century: Relations between States and Religious Communities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. hlm. 194. ISBN 9781409497332. The State shall support all religious communities including the Church of Norway on an equal footing, but the Church of Norway shall 'remain the people's Church and is as such supported by the State', thereby upholding its function as a national Church. 
  28. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Peru" (PDF). Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 2015-07-24. Diakses tanggal 2019-08-27. Within an independent and autonomous system, the State recognizes the Catholic Church as an important element in the historical, cultural, and moral formation of Peru and lends it its cooperation. The State respects other denominations and may establish forms of collaboration with them. 
  29. ^ "Poland's church struggles to contain its latest crisis". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2022-07-03. Diakses tanggal 2019-08-27. 
  30. ^ "Salinan arsip". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2023-02-14. Diakses tanggal 2019-08-27. 
  31. ^ "Is Poland Still a Catholic Stronghold?". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2023-03-23. Diakses tanggal 2019-08-27. 
  32. ^ "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". 1997-04-02. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2003-04-12. Diakses tanggal 2019-08-27. The relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church shall be determined by international treaty concluded with the Holy See, and by statute. The relations between the Republic of Poland and other churches and religious organizations shall be determined by statutes adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the Council of Ministers. 
  33. ^ Cornelio, Jayeel Serrano (12 July 2016). Being Catholic in the Contemporary Philippines: Young People Reinterpreting Religion. Routledge. ISBN 978-1138803343. 
  34. ^ Prizel, Ilya (13 August 1998). National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 155. ISBN 9780521576970. Although nominally a national church, the Russian Orthodox Church developed from a defensive, nativist institution to the ideological foundation of an imperial idea. 
  35. ^ Morton, Andrew R. (1994). God's Will in a Time of Crisis: A Colloquium Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Baillie Commission. Edinburgh: CTPI. hlm. 14. ISBN 9781870126274. In October 1929, the Established Church and the United Free Church were united to form the national Church of Scotland. 
  36. ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (1 January 1975). The Chetniks. Stanford University Press. hlm. 176. ISBN 9780804708579. He also had the support of the Serbian Orthodox Church, which as a national church long identified with the national destiny and aspirations of the Serbian people was naturally inclined to identify itself with the movement that had the backing of the king and the Servian-dominated government-in-exile. 
  37. ^ Spanish Catholicism: an Historical Overview Stanley Payne - University Of Wisconsin Press - 1984 ISBN 0299098044
  38. ^ Gilley, Sheridan; Stanley, Brian (2006). The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8, World Christianities C.1815-c.1914. Cambridge University Press. hlm. 354. ISBN 9780521814560. The Church of Sweden could be characterised as 'national church' or 'folk church', but not as 'state church', because the independence of the church was expressed by the establishment of a Church Assembly in 1863. 
  39. ^ West, Barbara A. (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. hlm. 845. ISBN 9781438119137. A second important cultural feature of the Tuvaluan nation is the centrality of the national church, the Ekalesia o Tuvalu, or Church of Tuvalu, in which up to 97 percent of the population claims membership. 
  40. ^ Velychenko, Stephen (1 January 1992). National History as Cultural Process: A Survey of the Interpretations of Ukraine's Past in Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian Historical Writing from the Earliest Times to 1914. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. hlm. 199. ISBN 9780920862759. For this reason the Ukrainian Orthodox Church was the true democratic national church of the Ukrainian nation. 
  41. ^ Barth, Ethnics, ed. Braun, transl. Bromiley, New York, 1981, p. 305.
  • William Reed Huntington, A national church, Bedell lectures, Scribner's, 1897.