Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]
Asal muasal istilah film yatim masih belum jelas. Namun pada 1990an, para pengarsip film umumnya memakai kolokuialisme tersebut untuk merujuk kepada film-film yang ditinggal oleh para pemiliknya. Sebelum akhir dekade tersebut, frase tersebut dianggap sebagai kiasan bagi penyajian film, mula-mula di Amerika Serikat, kemudian dunia.
Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]
Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]
- ^ Gregory Lukow, "The Politics of Orphanage: The Rise and Impact of the 'Orphan Film' Metaphor on Contemporary Preservation Practice", paper delivered at the University of South Carolina symposium, "Orphans of the Storm: Saving Orphan Films in the Digital Age", September 23, 1999. http://www.sc.edu/filmsymposium/archive/orphans2001/lukow.html . As early as October 1950 Industrial Marketing magazine referred to 16mm industrial sales movies as orphan films. Restoration expert Robert Gitt was quoted using the metaphor as early as 1992, to refer to silent-era films, newsreels, and kinescopes. Robert Epstein, “Mining Hollywood's Old Movie Gold,” Los Angeles Times, July 16, 1992, p. F1.
Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Asch, Mark. "Three Questions for Cullen Gallagher About the Orphan Film Symposium," The L Magazine, January 22, 2010.
- Boyle, James, et al. Access to Orphan Films, submission to the Copyright Office, from the Center for the Study of the Public Domain, Duke University Law School, March 2005.
- Cave, Dylan. “Born Digital – Raised an Orphan?: Acquiring Digital Media through an Analog Paradigm,” The Moving Image 8.1 (Spring 2008): 1–13.
- Cherchi Usai, Paolo. "What Is an Orphan Film? Definition, Rationale, Controversy." Paper delivered at the symposium "Orphans of the Storm: Saving Orphan Films in the Digital Age", University of South Carolina, September 23, 1999. Transcript at http://www.sc.edu/filmsymposium/archive/orphans2001/usai.html
- Cherchi Usai, Paolo. "Are All (Analog) Films 'Orphans'? A Pre-digital Appraisal," The Moving Image 9.1 (2009): 1–18.
- Coffey, Liz. “Orphans of the Storm III: Listening to Orphan Films,” The Moving Image 3.2 (Fall 2003): 128–32.
- Cohen, Emily. “The Orphanista Manifesto: Orphan Films and the Politics of Reproduction,” American Anthropologist 106.4 (2004): 719–31.
- Cullum, Paul. “Orphanistas! Academics and Amateurs Unite to Save the Orphan Film,” L.A. Weekly, Apr. 26, 2001.
- de Klerk, Nico. "Entwurf eines Heims. 'Orphan Films' im Werk Gustav Deutsch / Designing a Home: Orphan Films in the Work of Gustav Deutsch." In Gustav Deutsch, ed. Wilbirg Brainin-Donnenberg and Michael Loebenstein (Vienna: SYNEMA, 2009): 113-22.
- Eagan, Daniel. “Orphan Films: Recapturing Lost Snippets of History,” Smithsonian Magazine, July 2010, www.smithsonianmag.com.
- Fishman, Stephen. The Public Domain: How to Find & Use Copyright-free Writing, Music, Art, & More, 3rd ed. Berkeley, CA: Nolo, 2006.
- Frick, Caroline. “Beyond Hollywood: Enhancing Heritage with the 'Orphan' Film," International Journal of Heritage Studie 14.4 (2008): 319–31.
- Frick, Caroline. 'Saving Cinema: The Politics of Preservation' (Oxford University Press, 2010).
- Goldsmith, Leo. "Adventures in Preservation: A Report from the 7th Orphan Film Symposium," Moving Image Source, June 10, 2010.
- Horak, Jan-Christopher. “Editor's Introduction,” The Moving Image 6.2 (2006): vi–viii.
- Horak, Jan-Christopher. “The Strange Case of The Fall of Jerusalem: Orphans and Film Identification,” The Moving Image 5.2 (2005): 26–49.
- Jones, Janna. The Past Is a Moving Picture: Preserving the Twentieth Century on Film. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012. See chapter 3, subtitled "Orphans and the Culture Wars."
- Kay, Olivia Lory. "Gathering in the Orphans: Essay Films and Archives in the Information Age." Journal of Media Practice, 11.3 (2010): 253-66.
- Libby, Jenn. "Foundling Films: Orphans 5: Science, Industry and Education", Afterimage (May/June 2006): 11.
- Longo, Regina. “Fifth Orphan Film Symposium: Science, Industry, and Education,” The Moving Image 7.1 (Spring 2007): 92–94.
- Musser, Charles. “Discovering Union Films and Its Archives,” Cinémas: revue d'études cinématographiques 24.2-3 (2014): 125-60.
- Musser, Charles. Foreword to Fight Pictures: A History of Boxing and Early Cinema by Dan Streible (University of California Press, 2008), x–xvi.
- “Orphans No More: Ephemeral Films and American Culture,” issue of the Journal of Popular Film and Television 37 (Fall 2009), ed. Elizabeth Heffelfinger and Heide Solbrig.
- Orgeron, Devin. “Orphans Take Manhattan: The 6th Biannual Orphan Film Symposium,” Cinema Journal 48.2 (Winter 2009): 114–18.
- “‘Orphan Films’ Course to Screen Eight Neglected Works at Guild,” Los Angeles Times, Nov. 23, 1979.
- Orphan Works and Mass Digitization: Obstacles and Opportunities, Berkeley Technology Law Journal 27.3 (2012): 1251-1550.
- Prelinger, Rick. The Field Guide to Sponsored Films. San Francisco: National Film Preservation Foundation, 2006.
- Prelinger, Rick. "On the Virtues of Preexisting Material," Black Oyster Catcher, blog, May 30, 2007. Republished as "Prelinger Manifesto: On the Virtues of Preexisting Material," Enclosure of the Commons blog Feb. 23, 2010; and in Contents magazine no. 5 (2013).
- Prelinger, Rick, with Raegan Kelly. “Panorama Ephemera,” Vectors: Journal of Culture and Technology in a Dynamic Vernacular, vol. 2.
- Schwartz, Eric J. and Matt Williams. “Access to Orphan Works: Copyright Law, Preservation, and Politics,” Cinema Journal 46.2 (Winter 2007): 139–45.
- Streible, Dan. “Orphan Films,” Oxford Bibliographies Online: Cinema and Media Studies,' ed. Krin Gabbard (Oxford University Press, added Oct. 29, 2013). DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199791286-0064.
- Streible, Dan. “The Role of Orphan Films in the 21st Century Archive,” Cinema Journal 46.3 (Spring 2007): 124–28.
- Streible, Dan. “Saving, Studying, and Screening: A History of the Orphan Film Symposium.” In Film Festival Yearbook 5: Archival Film Festivals. Edited by Alex Marlow-Mann (St. Andrews, UK: St. Andrews Film Studies, 2013), 163-76.
- Streible, Dan. "The State of Orphan Films: Editor's Introduction," The Moving Image 9.1 (2009): vi–xix.
- Tynes, Teri. "*Gustav Deutsch and the Art of Found Footage.” Originally for Reframe (Tribeca Film Institute blog), May 6, 2009. footage.html Access via the filmmaker’s website.
- Van Gompel, Stef and P. Bernt Hugenholtz. “The Orphan Works Problem: The Copyright Conundrum of Digitizing Large-Scale Audiovisual Archives, and How to Solve It," Popular Communication: International Journal of Media and Culture, 8.1 (2010): 61-71.
- Wilson, Rachel. "Moving Pictures Around the World: The 7th Orphan Film Symposium," Senses of Cinema, 55 (2010).
- Ziebell Mann, Sarah. “A Meditation on the Orphan, via the University of South Carolina Symposium,” AMIA Newsletter 47 (Winter 2000), 30, 33.
Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Orphan Film Symposium websites at New York University (Cinema Studies Dept., Tisch School of the Arts),  and at the University of South Carolina (Film and Media Studies Program, College of Arts & Sciences), , including "What is an orphan film?" http://www.sc.edu/filmsymposium/orphanfilm.html. These sites include audio recordings of talks given at the symposia.
- Orphan Film Symposium Collection, Internet Archive. Created May 3, 2010; last updated June 1, 2014. Audiovisual documentation generated at the Orphan Film Symposium.
- National Film Preservation Foundation
- Orphan Works Website of the Association of European Film Archives and Cinematheques
- FORWARD project website