Ekspedisi Pancho Villa

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Ekspedisi Pancho Villa
Bagian dari Revolusi Meksiko, Perang Perbatasan
VillaUncleSamBerrymanCartoon.png
Kartun karya Clifford Berryman menampilkan tindakan Amerika saat ekspedisi tersebut
Tanggal14 Maret 1916[1] – 7 Februari 1917
LokasiNegara bagian Chihuahua, Meksiko
Hasil

Tujuan Amerika gagal

  • Penarikan Amerika Serikat pada 1917.
Pihak terlibat
 Amerika Serikat

Bendera MeksikoVillistas


Bendera MeksikoCarrancistas
Tokoh dan pemimpin
Bendera Amerika Serikat John J. Pershing Bendera Meksiko Pancho Villa
Bendera Meksiko Alvaro Obregón
Kekuatan
c. 10,000 c. 500 (Villistas)
22,000 (Carrancistas)
Korban
15 tewas
28 luka-luka
3 menghilang[2][n 1]
Villistas:
169 tewas
115+ luka-luka
19 ditangkap
Carrancistas:
82 tewas
51+ luka-luka[2][3]
Jenderal John J. Pershing di kampnya di Colonia Dublán, mempelajari tatanan tertelegrafi
Pancho Villa mengenakan bandoliers di depan sebuah kamp pemberontak

Templat:Serial Woodrow Wilson Ekspedisi Pancho Villa—yang sekarang resmi dikenal di Amerika Serikat sebagai Revolusi Meksiko,[4] namun aslinya disebut sebagai "Ekspedisi Punitif, Angkatan Darat AS"[1]—adalah sebuah operasi militer yang dilakukan oleh Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat melawan pasukan paramiliter revolusioner Meksiko Francisco "Pancho" Villa dari 14 Maret 1916, sampai 7 Februari 1917, saat Revolusi Meksiko tahun 1910–1920.

Ekspedisi tersebut diluncurkan dalam membalas serangan Villa di kota Columbus, New Mexico, dan merupakan peristiwa paling diingat dari Perang Perbatasan. Tujuan ekspedisi yang dideklarasikan oleh pemerintahan Wilson adalah penangkapan Villa.[5] Meskipun berhasil mengalahkan badan utama dari komando Villa, yang bertanggung jawab atas serbuan di Columbus, pasukan AS tak dapat meraih tujuan utama yang dinyatakan Wilson dalam menghindarkan pelarian Villa.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Korban AS dan Meksiko pada 30 Juni 1916, setelah akhir operasi AS aktif

Kutipan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Pershing report, October 1916, p. 4 (General Orders, No. 1)
  2. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama jjp94
  3. ^ Appendix M
  4. ^ "Mexican Expedition Campaign". History.army.mil. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-23. 
  5. ^ Yockelson, Mitchell. "The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition: Part 1", Prologue Magazine, Fall 1997, Vol. 29, No. 3. Retrieved 5 Mar 2015

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Boot, Max (2003). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 046500721X. LCCN 2004695066. 
  • Beede, Benjamin R. (1994). The War of 1898, and U.S. interventions, 1898–1934: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8240-5624-8. 
  • Clendenon, Clarence C. (1969). Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars. NY: Macmillan, ASIN B0036RKIGK
  • de Quesada, Alejandro (2012). The Hunt for Pancho Villa: The Columbus Raid and Pershing's Punitive Expedition 1916–17, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1849085687
  • Dubach Jr, Thomas Reese. "Reinforcements on the Border: The Utah National Guard's Role in the Punitive Expedition, 1916-1917." (MA Thesis, Utah State University, 2012). online; Bibliography pages 44–48.
  • Eisenhower, John S. D. (1995). Intervention!: The United States and the Mexican Revolution, 1913–1917.  W.W. Norton, ISBN 978-0393313185
  • Finley, James P., director and editor (1993). "Buffalo Soldiers at Huachuca: Military Events in the American Southwest from 1910–1916", Huachuca Illustrated: A Magazine of the Fort Huachuca Museum Volume 1.
  • Hall, Linda B. and Don M. Coerver. Revolution on the Border: The United States and Mexico 1910-1920 (University of New Mexico Press, 1988).
  • Harris, Charles H. and Sadler, Louis R. (2015). The Great Call-Up: The Guard, the Border, and the Mexican Revolution. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806149547
  • Hurst, James W. (2007). Pancho Villa and Black Jack Pershing: The Punitive Expedition in Mexico, Praeger. ISBN 978-0313350047
  • Katz, Friedrich (1978). "Pancho Villa and the Attack on Columbus, New Mexico". American Historical Review. 83 (1): 101–130. doi:10.2307/1865904.  in JSTOR (perlu berlangganan)
  • Katz, Friedrich (1981). The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226425887
  • Katz, Friedrich (1998). The Life and Times of Pancho Villa. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3046-6. 
  • McLynn, Frank. Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2000).
  • Pershing, John J.(1916). "Report of operations of Punitive Expedition to June 30, 1916", October 10, 1916; Primary source
  • Pierce, Frank C. (1917). A Brief History of the Lower Rio Grande Valley. George Banta Publishing Company. 
  • Roberts, Richard C. "The Utah National Guard on the Mexican Border in 1916", Utah Historical Quarterly, Vol. 46 No. 3 (Summer 1978)
—(2003), Legacy, History of the Utah National Guard, Salt Lake City: National Guard Association of Utah, ISBN 978-09728-490-67
  • Stenberg, Richard K., "Dakota Doughboys in the Desert: The Experiences of a North Dakota National Guard Company during the Mexican Border Campaign of

1916-1917," North Dakota History 71, nos. 1 & 2 (2004): 50-64.

  • Stout, Joseph A., Jr. Border Conflict: Villistas, Carrancistas, and the Punitive Expedition, 1915-1920 (Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1999).
  • Urban, Andrew. "Asylum in the Midst of Chinese Exclusion: Pershing's Punitive Expedition and the Columbus Refugees from Mexico, 1916–1921," Journal of Policy History Vol 23 (2011): 204–229. [1] (perlu berlangganan)
  • Tompkins, Col. Frank (1934, 1996). Chasing Villa: The Last Campaign of the U.S. Cavalry, High-Lonesome Books, Silver City, New Mexico. ISBN 0-944383-39-4
  • Urwin, Gregory J. W. (1983). The United States Cavalry: An Illustrated History, 1776–1944. University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0806134758
  • White, E. Bruce and Francisco Villa, "The Muddied Waters of Columbus, New Mexico," The Americas Vol 32 Nbr 1 (July 1975), pp. 72–98, Academy of American Franciscan History. in JSTOR (perlu berlangganan)
  • Williams, Vernon L. Lieutenant Patton and the American Army in the Mexican Punitive Expedition, 1915-1916. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co, 1992. ISBN 0840380895
  • Yockelson, Mitchell (1997). "The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition: Part 1", Prologue Magazine, Fall 1997, Vol. 29, No. 3
"The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition: Part 2", Prologue Magazine, Winter 1997, Vol. 29, No. 4

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Revolusi Meksiko Templat:Konflik Amerika