Dalam media berita, echo chamber adalah sebuah deskripsi kiasan dari sebuah keadaan dimana keyakinan diyakini atau disebarkan oleh komunitas dan diulang-ulang dalam sebuah sistem tertutup. Dengan mengunjungi sebuah "echo chamber", orang-orang dapat menyaksikan informasi yang menegakkan pandangan mereka yang berdiri, berpotensi menjadi bias konfirmasi. Ini dapat meningkatkan polarisasi dan ekstrimisme sosial dan politik.
Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Barberá, Pablo, et al. "Tweeting from left to right: Is online political communication more than an echo chamber?." Psychological science 26.10 (2015): 1531-1542.
Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Philip McRae, "Forecasting the Future Over Three Horizons of Change ", ATA Magazine, May 21, 2010.
- John Scruggs, "The "Echo Chamber" Approach to Advocacy", Philip Morris, Bates No. 2078707451/7452, December 18, 1998.
- "Buying a Movement: Right-Wing Foundations and American Politics," (Washington, DC: People for the American Way, 1996). Or download a PDF version of the full report.
- Dan Morgan, "Think Tanks: Corporations' Quiet Weapon Diarsipkan 2019-08-31 di Wayback Machine.," Washington Post, January 29, 2000, p. A1.
- Jeff Gerth and Sheryl Gay Stolberg, "Drug Industry Has Ties to Groups With Many Different Voices", New York Times, October 5, 2000.
- Robert Kuttner, "Philanthropy and Movements," The American Prospect, July 2, 2002.
- Robert W. Hahn, "The False Promise of 'Full Disclosure'[pranala nonaktif permanen]," Policy Review, Hoover Institution, October 2002.
- David Brock, Blinded by the Right: The Conscience of an Ex-Conservative (New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 2002).
- Jeff Chester, "A Present for Murdoch", The Nation, December 2003: "From 1999 to 2002, his company spent almost $10 million on its lobbying operations. It has already poured $200,000 in contributions into the 2004 election, having donated nearly $1.8 million during the 2000 and 2002 campaigns."
- Jim Lobe for Asia Times: "the structure's most remarkable characteristics are how few people it includes and how adept they have been in creating new institutions and front groups that act as a vast echo chamber for one another and for the media"
- Valdis Krebs, "Divided We Stand," Political Echo Chambers
- Jonathan S. Landay and Tish Wells, "Iraqi exile group fed false information to news media", Knight Ridder, March 15, 2004.
- R.G. Keen: The Technology of Oil Can Delays
- Echo chamber at SourceWatch