Daftar situs monolit raksasa

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Orang-orang di pulau Nias, Indonesia memindahkan sejumlah monolit ke tempat konstruksi, sekitar tahun 1915.

Daftar situs monolit raksasa ini dikelompokkan menurut ukuran batu paling besar pada situs tersebut. Suatu monolit adalah batu besar yang digunakan untuk membangun monumen atau bangunan, baik sendirian maupun bersama batu-batu lain. Daftar ini memuat batu-batu raksasa yang ditambang, dipindahkan dan diangkat untuk membuat stuktur atau monumen.

Monolit yang ditambang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Obelisk yang belum selesai di Aswan.

Daftar ini hanya memuat monolit yang ditambang (quarried), tetapi tidak dipindahkan.

Berat Nama/Situs Jenis Lokasi Pembangun Catatan
8,799 t (est) Yangshan Stele Stele (body) Yangshan Quarry, Tiongkok Dinasti Ming 49.4 m panjangnya, 10.7 m wide, 4.4 m thick[1]
~1,650 t[2] Unnamed monolith Block Baalbek, Lebanon Roman Empire 19.6 m panjangnya, 6 m wide, ≥5.5 m high
~1,242 t[3] Unnamed monolith Block Baalbek, Lebanon Roman Empire 19.5–20.5 m panjangnya, 4.34–56 m wide, 4.5 m high
~1,100 t[4] Unfinished obelisk Obelisk Aswan, Egypt Ancient Egypt 41.75 m panjangnya, 2.5–4.4 m wide
~1,000.12 t[5] Stone of the South Block Baalbek, Lebanon Roman Empire 20.31–76 m panjangnya, 4–5.29 m wide, 4.21–32 m high
~1,207 t[6] Granite column Column Mons Claudianus, Egypt Roman Empire Ca. 17.7 m (59 feet) long[7]

Monolit yang dipindah[sunting | sunting sumber]

The 1,250 t heavy Thunder Stone in Saint Petersburg. On top an equestrian statue of Peter the Great
The 53.3 t heavy capital block (the rectangular platform fitted with a railing) of Trajan's Column was lifted by Roman cranes to a record height of about 34 m.
The Western Stone of the Western Wall in Jerusalem weighs 517 t.

Daftar ini hanya memuat monolit yang ditambang dan dipindahkan.

Berat Nama/Situs Jenis Lokasi Pembangun Catatan
1,250 t[8] Thunder Stone Boulder, Statue pedestal Saint Petersburg, Russia Russian Empire, 1770 Moved 6 km overland for shipment,[8] and cut from 1,500 t to current size while on transport[9]
1,000 t[10][11] Ramesseum Statue Thebes, Egypt Ancient Egypt Transported 170 mil (270 km) by ship from Aswan
800 t each[12] Trilithon (3×) Blocks Baalbek, Lebanon Roman Empire Plus about 24 blocks 300 tons each[13]
700 t each Colossi of Memnon (2×) Statues Thebes, Mesir Mesir kuno Transported 420 mil (680 km) from el-Gabal el-Ahmar (near modern-day Cairo) over land without using the Nile.[10][11][14]
550 to 600 t[15][16] Western Stone, Jewish Holy Temple Block Yerusalem, Israel [17] Herodes, Raja orang Yahudi pada zaman Bait Kedua
520 tons, 170 tons, and 160 tons Great Stele, King Ezana's Stele, Obelisk of Axum Stelae Axum, Etiopia The stelae were moved about 26 mil (42 km).[10]
400–600 t Gomateshwara Statue Hassan district negara bagian Karnataka, India 60 kaki (18 m) tingginya x 30 kaki (9 m) lebarnya
400 t[18] Kuil dalam kompleks Khafre's Pyramid Giza, Mesir
300–500 t[19] Masuda no iwafune Asuka, Nara, Jepang Large stone structure approximately 11 meters in length, 8 meters in width, and 4.7 meters In height
340 t[20] Levitated Mass Los Angeles, California, United States Moved 106 miles.[21]
300 t[10] Broken Menhir of Er Grah Brittany, France Dipindahkan 75 mil (121 km).
285 t[22] Pompey's Pillar Kolom Alexandria, Egypt Kekaisaran Romawi
230 t[23] Mausoleum of Theodoric Roof slab Ravenna, Italia Ostrogothic Kingdom
220 t[24] Menkaure's Pyramid Giza, Egypt Largest stones in mortuary temple
200 t[25] Sahure's pyramid Saqqara, Egypt Largest stones over king's chamber
200 t[26] Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites Korea Largest stone
Berat Nama/Situs Jenis Lokasi Pembangun Catatan


Monolit yang diangkat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Daftar ini hanya memuat monolit yang ditambang, dipindahkan dan diangkat.

Didirikan tegak[sunting | sunting sumber]

Monolit yang diketahui telah diangkat sampai berdiri tegak:

Berat Nama/Situs Jenis Lokasi Pembangun Catatan
600 t[64] Alexander Column Column Saint Petersburg, Russia Russian Empire Lifted in upright position in 1832
361 t[65] Vatican Obelisk Obelisk Rome, Italy Pope Sixtus V Relocated and lifted in upright position by Domenico Fontana in 1586
250 t Luxor Obelisk Obelisk Paris, France Louis-Philippe I Relocated and lifted in upright position by Apollinaire Lebas in 1836

Lifted clear off the ground[sunting | sunting sumber]

Monoliths known or assumed to have been lifted clear off the ground by cranes into their position:

Weight Height Name/Site Type Location Builder Comment
108 t[66] ~19 m Jupiter temple Cornice block Baalbek, Lebanon Roman Empire
163 t[66] ~19 m Jupiter temple Architrave-frieze block Baalbek, Lebanon Roman Empire
153.3 t[67] ~34 m Trajan's Column Capital block Rome, Italy Roman Empire Dedicated in 113 AD

Daftar upaya memindahkan atau memasang batu-batu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Daftar ini diurutkan dari proyek terbesar. Detail tambahan dapat dilihat pada halaman yang bersangkutan.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Yang, Xinhua (杨新华); Lu, Haiming (卢海鸣) (2001), 南京明清建筑 (Ming and Qing architecture of Nanjing), 南京大学出版社 (Nanjing University Press), ISBN 7-305-03669-2 
  2. ^ "Archaeologists Discover The World's Largest Ancient Stone Block". io9. Diakses tanggal 2014-11-29. 
  3. ^ Ruprechtsberger 1999, hlm. 17
  4. ^ Klemm & Klemm 1993, hlmn. 323f.
  5. ^ Ruprechtsberger 1999, hlm. 15
  6. ^ Maxfield 2001, hlm. 158
  7. ^ Scaife 1953, hlm. 37
  8. ^ a b Adam 1977, hlm. 42−45
  9. ^ "Transport du piédestal de la statue de Pierre le Grand". La Nature magazine, second semester 1882. (dalam bahasa Prancis). Diakses tanggal 22 April 2007. 
  10. ^ a b c d "The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris Scarre 1999
  11. ^ a b "Giant Statue of Ancient Egypt Queen Found". News.nationalgeographic.com. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  12. ^ Adam 1977, hlm. 52
  13. ^ Alouf, Michael M., 1944: History of Baalbek. American Press. p. 129
  14. ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ramses II: Magnificence on the Nile (1993)
  15. ^ The History Channel cited the 16.5 depth 567 ton estimate in "Lost Worlds of King Herod"
  16. ^ Dan Bahat: Touching the Stones of our Heritage, Israeli ministry of Religious Affairs, 2002
  17. ^ http://www.un.org/Depts/dpi/palestine/ch12.pdf
  18. ^ Siliotti, Alberto, Zahi Hawass, 1997 "Guide to the Pyramids of Egypt" p.62
  19. ^ "Text Browse by Country, County and Type of Site : The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map:". Megalithic.co.uk. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  20. ^ "Levitated Mass FAQ" (PDF). Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Diakses tanggal 2012-03-13. 
  21. ^ "Mass movers". Observatoire du Land Art. Diakses tanggal 2012-11-19. 
  22. ^ Templat:Harnvb
  23. ^ Heidenreich & Johannes 1971, hlm. 63
  24. ^ Edwards, Dr. I.E.S.: The Pyramids of Egypt 1986/1947 p. 147-163
  25. ^ source: Edwards, Dr. I.E.S.: The Pyramids of Egypt 1986/1947 p. 175-6, 180-1, 275
  26. ^ "Gochang, Hwasun, and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites - World Heritage Site - Pictures, info and travel reports". World Heritage Site. 2010-01-01. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  27. ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series:Aztecs: Reign of Blood and Splendor (1992) p.45-47
  28. ^ "Non-Western - Rain God, Tlaloc". Instructional1.calstatela.edu. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  29. ^ "Mexico'S Lord Of The Waters". Chapala.com. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  30. ^ "Kerloas menhir - Menhir de Kerloas [Sophie's maze]". Sophie-g.net. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  31. ^ Edwards, Dr. I.E.S.: The Pyramids of Egypt 1986/1947 p. 246-9
  32. ^ "Egypt: The Pyramid of Khendjer at South Saqqara". Touregypt.net. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  33. ^ Browman, D. L., 1981, New light on Andean Tiwanaku. New Scientist. vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 408-419.
  34. ^ Coe, Michael, Dean Snow, and Elizabeth Benson, 1986 "Atlas of Ancient America" p. 190
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris Scarre 1999
  36. ^ Readers Digest: "Mysteries of the Ancient Americas" The New World Before Columbus 1986 p. 220-1
  37. ^ Edwards, Dr. I.E.S.: The Pyramids of Egypt 1986/1947 p. 237-240
  38. ^ "Egypt: Amenemhet III's Pyramid at Hawara". Touregypt.net. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  39. ^ Siliotti, Alberto, Zahi Hawass, 1997 "Guide to the Pyramids of Egypt"
  40. ^ Weir, A (1980), Early Ireland. A Field Guide, Belfast: Blackstaff Press, hlm. p101 
  41. ^ Lehner, Mark The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames and Hudson (1997)p. 148-9 ISBN 0-500-05084-8
  42. ^ "NOVA Online | Secrets of Easter Island | Paro". Pbs.org. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  43. ^ Walker, Charles, 1980 "Wonders of the Ancient World" p24-7
  44. ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ramses II: Magnificence on the Nile (1993) p. 53-54
  45. ^ Lancaster 1999, hlm. 430
  46. ^ "ASUKA/isibutai kofun". Asukanet.gr.jp. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  47. ^ Parker, Freda (2009-05-12). "The Pantheon - Rome - 126 AD | Monolithic". Static.monolithic.com. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  48. ^ http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/malta/hq7.html
  49. ^ "The Prehistoric Archaeology of the Temples of Malta". Bradshawfoundation.com. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  50. ^ "KING ASHOKA: His Edicts and His Times". Cs.colostate.edu. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  51. ^ Taracha, Piotr (2009). Religions of second millennium Anatolia. Eisenbrauns. hlm. 12. ISBN 978-3-447-05885-8. 
  52. ^ "The World's First Temple". Archaeology.org. Diakses tanggal 2010-09-12. 
  53. ^ Lynne Lancaster,“Building Trajan's Column,” American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 103, No. 3. (Jul., 1999) p.426
  54. ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Ramses II: Magnificence on the Nile (1993)p. 133
  55. ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Mesopotamia: The Mighty Kings p118-119
  56. ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Mesopotamia: The Mighty Kings. (1995) p. 112-121
  57. ^ Lost Worlds: The Pagans (of Britain) History Channel series with contributions from historian Prof. Ronald Hutton, Archeologists Erika Guttmann and Martin Carruthers
  58. ^ Walker, Charles, 1980 "Wonders of the Ancient World" p. 150-3
  59. ^ Aztecs: Reign of Blood and Splendor. Virginia:Time Life, 1992.
  60. ^ Lehner, Mark The Complete Pyramids, London: Thames and Hudson (1997)p.196-7 ISBN 0-500-05084-8.
  61. ^ Time Life Lost Civilizations series: Southeast Asia: A Past Regained (1995)
  62. ^ Siliotti, Alberto, Zahi Hawass, 1997 "Guide to the Pyramids of Egypt" p.63-9
  63. ^ http://timeline.centennial.rice.edu/entry/415/
  64. ^ http://kolonna.e812.ru/construction/installation.html
  65. ^ Lancaster 1999, hlm. 428
  66. ^ a b Coulton 1974, hlm. 19
  67. ^ Lancaster 1999, hlmn. 419, 426
  68. ^ a b History Channel "Mega Movers: Ancient Mystery Moves"

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Adam, Jean-Pierre (1977), "À propos du trilithon de Baalbek: Le transport et la mise en oeuvre des mégalithes", Syria, 54 (1/2): 31–63, doi:10.3406/syria.1977.6623 
  • Coulton, J. J. (1974), "Lifting in Early Greek Architecture", The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 94: 1–19, doi:10.2307/630416 
  • Heidenreich, Robert; Johannes, Heinz (1971), Das Grabmal Theoderichs zu Ravenna, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner 
  • Klemm, Rosemarie; Klemm, Dietrich D. (1993), Steine und Steinbrüche im Alten Ägypten, Berlin: Springer, ISBN 3-540-54685-5 
  • Lancaster, Lynne (1999), "Building Trajan's Column", American Journal of Archaeology, 103 (3): 419–439, doi:10.2307/506969 
  • Maxfield, Valerie A. (2001), "Stone Quarrying in the Eastern Desert with Particular Reference to Mons Claudianus and Mons Porphyrites", dalam Mattingly, David J.; Salmon, John, Economies Beyond Agriculture in the Classical World, Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society, 9, London: Routledge, hlm. 143–170, ISBN 0-415-21253-7 
  • Ruprechtsberger, Erwin M. (1999), "Vom Steinbruch zum Jupitertempel von Heliopolis/Baalbek (Libanon)", Linzer Archäologische Forschungen, 30: 7–56 
  • Scaife, C. H. O. (1953), "The Origin of Some Pantheon Columns", The Journal of Roman Studies, 43: 37, doi:10.2307/297777