Channa gachua

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Channa gachua
Channa gachua TH203 - W004.jpg
Klasifikasi ilmiah
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C. gachua
Nama binomial
Channa gachua
(Hamilton, 1822)
Sinonim
  • Ophiocephalus gachua Hamilton, 1822:68[1]
  • Ophiocephalus aurantiacus Hamilton, 1822:69
  • Ophiocephalus gachua var. basalis Günther, 1861:472
  • Ophicephalus cora-mota Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:414
  • Ophicephalus fuscus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:414
  • Ophicephalus marginatus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:411
  • Ophicephalus montanus McClelland, 1842:583

Sumber: Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes.[2]

Channa gachua adalah sejenis ikan air tawar anggota suku Channidae (kerabat gabus). Ikan buas ini menyebar luas di Asia Selatan, mulai dari Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, India (Benggala Barat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goalpara, Visakhapatnam), Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Langka, hingga ke Burma.[2] Bertubuh relatif kecil, dalam bahasa Inggris ikan ini dikenal sebagai Dwarf snakehead, Frog snakehead, dan juga Brown snakehead.[3]:69-72

Jenis serupa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pelat identifikasi
Sirip dada dengan pola belang konsentris di pangkalnya

Channa gachua sebelumnya dianggap menyebar luas, bahkan hingga ke Asia Timur dan Indonesia. Berdasarkan banyak kajian genetika dan filogeografi, kelompok C. gachua itu kini telah dibeda-bedakan, paling tidak, atas sekitar 20-an spesies, termasuk yang belum dideskripsi.[4][5][6] Kelompok ikan ini, dengan perkecualian satu spesies, memiliki ciri bersama yaitu pola belang-belang konsentris pada pangkal sirip dadanya.[6]

Di wilayah Srilanka, C. gachua sangat mirip dan dapat tertukar dengan Channa orientalis yang endemik di negeri itu. Sebagian ahli malah menganggapnya bersinonim.[3]

Sementara itu di Burma, Channa harcourtbutleri memiliki bentuk tubuh serupa dan hanya dapat dibedakan melalui pengamatan yang teliti.[7]

C. gachua (sensu stricto) kini diketahui hanya menyebar luas di Asia Selatan. Sedangkan takson serupa yang banyak terdapat di Indonesia bagian barat sekarang dikenal sebagai C. limbata.[4][5][8]

Kelompok Gachua[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beberapa jenis yang termasuk kelompok Gachua, di antaranya:

  • Channa bipuli Praveenraj, Uma, Moulitharan, & Bleher, 2018:155.[14] India: Assam: sungai-sungai di hutan Garbhanga.
  • Channa brunnea Praveenraj, Uma, Moulitharan, & Kannan, 2019:60.[17] India: Benggala Barat, DAS Sankosh - Jalpaiguri.
  • Channa gachua (Hamilton, 1822:68)
  • Channa lipor Praveenraj, Uma, Moulitharan, & Singh, 2019:62.[22] India, Meghalaya, DAS Umraling.
  • Channa pardalis Knight, 2016:8584.[28] Hanya diketahui dari Pegunungan Khasi, Meghalaya, India baratlaut.
  • Channa quinquefasciata Praveenraj, Uma, Knight, Moulitharan, Balasubramanian, Bineesh, & Bleher, 2018:143.[30] India utara: aliran S. Brahmaputra: DAS S. Torsa.
  • Channa rara Britz, Dahanukar, Anoop, & Ali, 2019:590.[5] India, Maharashtra, DAS Jagbudi.
  • Channa stewartii (Playfair, 1867:14).[32] India (Benggala Barat, Assam), Bangladesh, Bhutan dan Nepal, mungkin juga lebih jauh ke timur.
  • Channa stiktos Lalramliana, Knight, Lalhlimpuia, & Singh, 2018:167.[33] India timurlaut, Mizoram, DAS Kaladan.
  • Channa torsaensis Dey, Nur, Chowdhury, Sarkar, Kosygin, & Barat, 2019:498.[34] India: Benggala Barat, DAS Torsa.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Hamilton, F. (1822). An account of the Fishes found in the River Ganges and its branches. p. 68. Edinburgh : Printed for Archibald Constable & Co. Plate XXI.
  2. ^ a b Fricke, R., W.N. Eschmeyer, & R. Van der Laan (eds) (2022). Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. (http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp). Versi elektronik diakses pada 08/IV/2022.
  3. ^ a b Courtenay, Jr., W.R. & J.D. Williams (2004). USGS Circular 1251: Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
  4. ^ a b Rüber, L., H.H. Tan, & R. Britz (2019). "Snakehead (Teleostei: Channidae) diversity and the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot". J. Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 58:356–386. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzs.12324 (laman ResearchGate)
  5. ^ a b c Britz, R., N. Dahanukar, V.K. Anoop, & A. Ali (2019). "Channa rara, a new species of snakehead fish from the Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, India (Teleostei: Anabantiformes: Channidae)". Zootaxa, 4683:589–600. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4683.4.8
  6. ^ a b Sudasinghe, H., R. Pethiyagoda, M. Meegaskumbura, K. Maduwage, & R. Britz (2020). "Channa kelaartii, a valid species of dwarf snakehead from Sri Lanka and southern peninsular India (Teleostei: Channidae)". Vertebrate Zoology 70(2):157-170 (April 2020). https://doi.org/10.26049/VZ70-2-2020-05
  7. ^ Ng, H.H.; Peter K.L. Ng, & R. Britz (1999). "Channa harcourtbutleri (Annandale, 1918): a valid species of snakehead (Perciformes: Channidae) from Myanmar". J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 57-63. (laman ResearchGate)
  8. ^ Conte-Grand, C., R. Britz, N. Dahanukar, R. Raghavan, R. Pethiyagoda, H.H. Tan, R.K. Hadiaty, N.S. Yaakob, & L. Rüber (2017). "Barcoding snakeheads (Teleostei, Channidae) revisited: discovering greater species diversity and resolving perpetuated taxonomic confusions". PLoS ONE, 12(9): e0184017. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184017
  9. ^ McClelland, J. (1845). "Description of four species of fishes from the rivers at the foot of the Boutan Mountains". Calcutta Journal of Natural History, 5(18):274-282. (as Ophicephalus amphibeus p. 275)
  10. ^ a b Musikasinthorn, P. (2000). "Channa aurantimaculata, a new channid fish from Assam (Brahmaputra River basin), India, with designation of a neotype for C. amphibeus (McClelland, 1845)". Ichthyological Research, 47(1):27-37. (laman Academia).
  11. ^ Britz, R. (2013). "Channa andrao, a new species of dwarf snakehead from West Bengal, India (Teleostei: Channidae)". Zootaxa, 3731(2):287-294. (abstrak).
  12. ^ Lalhlimpuia, D.V., S. Lalronunga, & Lalramliana (2016). "Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae)". Zootaxa, 4147(3):343-350. (abstrak).
  13. ^ Hamilton, F. (1822). Op. cit. p.67, 367, Pl. 35 (fig. 20).
  14. ^ Praveenraj, J., A. Uma, N. Moulitharan, & H. Bleher (2018). "Channa bipuli, a new species of snakehead (Teleostei: Channidae) from Assam, northeast India". aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 24(4):153-166. (abstrak Diarsipkan 2022-04-12 di Wayback Machine.).
  15. ^ Vierke, J. (1991). "Ein farbenfroher neuer Schlangenkopffisch aus Assam: Channa bleheri spec. nov." Das Aquarium, Magazin für zeitgemässe Vivaristik, 25(259): 20-24.
  16. ^ Chakraborty, P., K. Yardi, & P. Mukherjee (2020). "Channa brahmacharyi sp. nov., a new species of dwarf snakehead from Meghalaya, north-east India (Teleostei: Channidae)". Species, v. 21(67):101-108.
  17. ^ Praveenraj, J., A. Uma, N. Moulitharan, & R. Kannan (2019). "Channa brunnea, a new species of snakehead (Teleostei: Channidae) from West Bengal, India". Zootaxa, 4624(1):59-70. (abstrak).
  18. ^ Chaudhuri, B.L. (1919). "Report on a small collection of fish from Putao (Hkamti Long) on the northern frontier of Burma". Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta), 16(4; art. 18):271-287. (Channa burmanica p.284, Pl. 22. fig. 4, 4a-b).
  19. ^ Annandale, N. (1918). "Fish and fisheries of the Inlé Lake". Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta), 14:33-64. (Ophiocephalus harcourt-butleri p. 54, Pl. 2 fig. 7, Pls. 4 figs. 16-17).
  20. ^ a b Nguyen, V.H. (2011). "Two new species belonging to genus Channa (Channidae, Perciformes) discovered in Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam". Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology), 33(4):8-17. 15 July 2012. (abstract).
  21. ^ Cuvier, G. & A. Valenciennes (1831). Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome septième VII:412 (bagian dari uraian Ophicephalus marginatus); Planche 201. F. G. Levrault, Paris. v. 7: i-xxix + 1-531, Pls. 170-208.
  22. ^ Praveenraj, J., A. Uma, N. Moulitharan, & S.G. Singh (2019). "A new species of dwarf Channa (Teleostei: Channidae) from Meghalaya, northeast India". Copeia, 107(1):61-70. (laman ResearchGate).
  23. ^ Geetakumari, K. & W. Vishwanath (2011). "Channa melanostigma, a new species of freshwater snakehead from north-east India (Teleostei: Channidae)". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 107(3) [2010:231-235].
  24. ^ Zhang, C.-G., P. Musikasinthorn, & K. Watanabe (2002). "Channa nox, a new channid fish lacking a pelvic fin from Guangxi, China". Ichthyological Research, 49(2):140-146. (laman ResearchGate).
  25. ^ Bloch, M.E. & J.G. Schneider (1801). M.E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae Iconibus cx Ilustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Berolini. Sumtibus Auctoris Impressum et Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum. i-lx + 1-584, Pls. 1-110. (C. orientalis p.496, Pl. 90.
  26. ^ a b Britz, R. (2008). "Channa ornatipinnis and C. pulchra, two new species of dwarf snakeheads from Myanmar (Teleostei: Channidae)". Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 18(4) [for 2007]:335-344. (abstrak).
  27. ^ Musikasinthorn, P. (1998). "Channa panaw, a new channid fish from the Irrawaddy and Sittang River basins, Myanmar". Ichthyological Research, 45(4):355-362. (abstrak).
  28. ^ Knight, J.D.M. (2016). "Channa pardalis, a new species of snakehead (Teleostei: Channidae) from Meghalaya, northeastern India". Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(3):8583-8589.
  29. ^ Bloch, M.E. (1793). Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische. Berlin. v. 7: i-xiv + 1-144, Pls. 325-360. (Ophicephalus punctatus: Pt.2 v.4 th.7:139, Pt.2 Atlas 4: Pl. 358).
  30. ^ Praveenraj, J., A. Uma, J.D.M. Knight, N. Moulitharan, S. Balasubramanian, K.K. Bineesh, & H. Bleher (2018). "Channa quinquefasciata, a new species of snakehead (Teleostei: Channidae) from Torsa River, North Bengal, India". aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 24(4):141-152. (abstrak Diarsipkan 2022-06-23 di Wayback Machine.).
  31. ^ Endruweit, M. (2017). "Description of a new dwarf snakehead (Perciformes: Channidae) from western Yunnan". Vertebrate Zoology, v. 67(2):173-178.
  32. ^ Playfair, R.L. (1867). "On the fishes of Cachar". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867(pt 1; art. 3) (for 10 Jan. 1867):14-17. (Ophiocephalus stewartii p.14, Pl. 3).
  33. ^ Lalramliana, J.D.M. Knight, D.V. Lalhlimpuia, & M. Singh (2018). "Integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of snakehead fish, Channa stiktos (Teleostei: Channidae), from Mizoram, North Eastern India". Vertebrate Zoology 68(2):165-175.
  34. ^ Dey, A., R. Nur, B.R. Chowdhury, D. Sarkar, L. Kosygin, & S. Barat (2019). "A new ornamental species of snakehead fish (Teleostei: Channidae) from River Torsa of West Bengal, India". Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6(6):497-503 (2018). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.7131

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]