Bunuh diri pada orang Mormon LGBT

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Bendera pride gay di depan gereja Mormon di Salt Lake City.

Orang LGBT terutama anak dan remaja LGBT di masyarakat memiliki risiko lebih tinggi menderita depresi dan melakukan bunuh diri[1][2] karena stres minoritas yang berasal dari diskriminasi, stigma anti-LGBT, dan penolakan masyarakat serta rasa tidak suka terhadap diri sendiri.[3] Penelitian telah menemukan hubungan antara nilai dan norma ajaran Mormonisme (Gereja OSZA) dengan depresi dan masalah kesehatan jiwa lainnya pada orang Mormon LGBTQ.[4][5][6]

Pada bulan Janurai 2016, Gereja OSZA mengeluarkan pernyataan agar pemuka agama dan umat, "aktif menjangkau, mengasihi semua, terutama terhadap anak dan remaja yang merasa terasingi atau terkucilkan."[7]

Penelitian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Affirmation, sebuah organisasi Mormon LGBT, mencatat lebih dari 30 orang Mormon LGBT yang meninggal akibat bunuh diri sejak tahun 1971 hingga 2008,[8][9] ditambah lima orang mahasiswa gay di Bringham Young University yang meninggal karena bunuh diri pada tahun 1965.[10][11]

Terdapat sekitar 40 kasus bunuh diri pada anak usia 10-17 tahun pada 2011-2015 di Utah (negara bagian Amerika Serikat dengan proporsi penduduk Mormon terbesar) yang mencatat orientasi seksual si anak. Dari 40 kasus tersebut, enam (15%) anak memiliki orientasi seksual nonheteroseksual.[12] Sebuah penelitian tahun 2016 mengenai bunuh diri pada remaja LGBT dalam lingkungan Mormon menemukan korelasi antara budaya, norma, dan retorika anti-LGBT terhadap tingkat bunuh diri remaja Mormon LGBT. [13] :25–26 Sebuah laporan tahun 2002 menemukan korelasi negatif antara bunuh diri pada remaja Mormon dan pada remaja non-Mormon di Utah. Tingkat religiusitas yang lebih tinggi dilaporkan menurunkan peluang bunuh diri, meskipun penelitian tersebut tidak memperhitungkan hubungan seksual, orientasi seksual, atau identitas dan ekspresi gender.[14] Penelitian lain menunjukkan bahwa orang Mormon LGBTQ dan dan orang LGBTQ mantan Mormon cenderung mimiliki masalah kesehatan mental tertentu yang berkorelasi positif dengan bunuh diri (seperti PTSD dan gangguan depresi mayor) yang ada pada tingkat yang lebih tinggi daripada populasi umumnya.[6][15][16] Penelitian lainnya terhadap 1.612 orang LGBT baik Mormon dan mantan Mormon pada tahun 2015 menemukan bahwa orang responden yang rutin mengikutin kegiatan keagamaan serta tidak menikah atau menikah dalam hubungan heteroseksual cenderung memiliki tingkat depresi yang tinggi dan kualitas hidup yang rendah.[4] Gangguan PTSD kompleks terkait dengan agama dan pengalaman keagamaan juga banyak ditemukan pada orang Mormon LGBTQ.[17][18]

Dalam sebuah survey USGA tahun 2015 terhadap 92 mahasiswa LGBTQ di Bringham Young University, 52% mengaku pernah memiliki pikiran untuk menyakiti diri sendiri.[19]

Tanggapan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beberapa individu dan organisasi[20][21][22] telah menyebut bahwa ajaran Gereja OSZA yang menolak homoseksualitas serta perlakuan orang Mormon LGBT di dalam lingkungan gereja dan masyarakat berpengaruh terhadap tingkat bunuh diri orang Mormon LGBT.[23][24][25][26] Pada penghujunga dekade 1990-an, psikiater, Jeffery R. Jensen, menyatakan bahwa banyak anak dan remaja lesbian dan gay Mormon yang bunuh diri akibat apa yang dicuapkan kepada mereka. Ia juga menyatakan bahwa banyak yang kemudian tersiksa karena berusaha menekan orientasi seksualnya dengan agama dan dengan tidak berhubungan seks, sembari berharap akan adanya "penyembuh".[27][28][29] American Psychiatric Association pada tahun 1998 menyatakan bahwa terapi pengubahan orientasi seksual (terapi konversi) tidak efektif dan justru berdampak buruk terhadap orang yang menjalaninya.[30] Pada tahun 2006, seorang pemuka gereja menolak memberi pendapat mengenai terapi konversi.[31][32]:17–20 Hal ini berbeda ketika pada tahun 2012 beberapa pemuka gereja mulai mengatakan bahwa ketertarikan sesama jenis bukan sebuah pilihan[32]:21 serta pada tahun 2016 ketika beberapa menyatakan bahwa terapi demikian tidak memiliki etika.[33]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "LGBT Populations: A Dialogue on Advancing Opportunities for Recovery from Addictions and Mental Health Problems" (PDF). samhsa.gov. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Mental Health Services. Diakses tanggal 2016-11-29. 
  2. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher (2014-03-15). "Program aims to stop suicide, homelessness in LGBT Mormon youth". The Salt Lake Tribune. Diakses tanggal 29 November 2016. 
  3. ^ Meyer, Ilan H.; Northridge, Mary E. (2007). The Health of Sexual Minorities (edisi ke-1). Springer. hlm. 242–247. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-31334-4. ISBN 978-0-387-31334-4. 
  4. ^ a b Galliher, Renee; Bradshaw, William; Dehlin, John; Crowelle, Katherine (25 April 2014). "Psychosocial Correlates of Religious Approaches to Same-Sex Attraction: A Mormon Perspective". Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health. 18 (3): 301,304. doi:10.1080/19359705.2014.912970. The major findings from the study are that non-biologically based views regarding the etiology of SSA [same-sex attraction], remaining active in the LDS church, remaining single, and engaging in mixed-orientation marriages were all associated with higher reported levels of internalized homophobia, sexual identity distress, and depression, and lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. ... This study does affirm and extend the existing literature by suggesting that psychosocially based beliefs about SSA etiology active participation in non-LGBT-affirming churches, being single and celibate, and mixed-orientation marriage—all of which are common beliefs and/or practices within modern, active LDS culture—are associated with poorer psychosocial health, well-being, and quality of life for LGBT Mormons. Conversely, biological beliefs about SSA etiology, complete disaffiliation from the LDS church, legal same-sex marriage, and sexual activity are all associated with higher levels of psychosocial health, well-being, and quality of life for LGBT Mormons. 
  5. ^ Knoll, Benjamin (2016). "Youth Suicide Rates and Mormon Religious Context: An Additional Empirical Analysis" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 42 (2): 25–26. In an attempt to address this shortage, my colleagues Daniel Parkinson, Michael Barker, and I have presented a wide range of evidence examining direct, indirect, and anecdotal evidence examining the relationship between Mormon culture/norms/rhetoric and youth suicide rates in the Mormon community, especially among LGBT youths. We conclude that while there is little direct evidence available to be able to conclusively demonstrate that a Mormon environment results in higher levels of youth LGBT suicides, there is sufficient indirect and anecdotal evidence that, when combined with what direct evidence is available, strongly points to a link between these factors. 
  6. ^ a b Minkoff, Kenneth; Bergman, Eric; Beck, Aaron; Beck, Roy (2006). "Hopelessness, Depression, and Attempted Suicide". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 130 (4): 455–9. PMID 4691303. We also found a significant positive correlation between depression and [suicidal] intent in the total sample, especially in the depressed group. The latter results replicates the findings of Silver and his co-workers (10) in a similar study [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.1971.01750180093015]; 90 percent of their sample consisted of depressed patients and they also found a significant positive correlation between depression and intent. 
  7. ^ Walch, Tad; Collins, Lois M. (28 January 2016). "LDS Church leaders mourn reported deaths in Mormon LGBT community". LDS Church. Deseret News. Diakses tanggal 29 November 2016. 
  8. ^ "Suicide Memorial". affirmation.org. Affirmation. Archived from the original on 2014-01-17. Diakses tanggal 2016-11-29. 
  9. ^ "Forum Discusses Suicide Prevention Among Mormons" (PDF). Sunstone Magazine (125): 79. Desember 2002. Diakses tanggal 2017-02-03. 
  10. ^ Corcoran, Brent; O'Donovan, Rocky (1994). Multiply and Replenish: Mormon Essays on Sex and Family. Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books. hlm. 156. ISBN 978-1560850502. Diakses tanggal 29 November 2016. 
  11. ^ McQueen, Robert (13 August 1975). "Outside the Temple Gates-The Gay Mormon". The Advocate: 14. Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Diakses tanggal 29 November 2016. 
  12. ^ "Youth Suicide". Utah Violence & Injury Prevention Program. Utah Departement of Health. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2019-01-07. Diakses tanggal 2019-07-22. 
  13. ^ Knoll, Benjamin (2016). "Youth Suicide Rates and Mormon Religious Context: An Additional Empirical Analysis" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 42 (2). 
  14. ^ Hilton, Sterling C.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Lyon, Joseph L. (2002). "Suicide Rates and Religious Commitment in Young Adult Males in Utah". American Journal of Epidemiology. 155 (5): 413–419. doi:10.1093/aje/155.5.413. 
  15. ^ Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David (2010). "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review". Archives of Suicide Research. 14 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1080/13811110903478997. PMID 20112140. A meta-analysis of 50 articles that examined the association between PTSD and past and current suicidal ideation and behavior was conducted. ... PTSD was associated with an increased incidence of prior attempted suicide and prior and current suicidal ideation. ... The evidence indicates that there is an association between PTSD and suicidality with several factors .... 
  16. ^ Ford, Julian D.; Gómez, Jennifer M. (2015). "The Relationship of Psychological Trauma and Dissociative and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders to Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidality: A Review". Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 16 (3): 232–271. doi:10.1080/15299732.2015.989563. PMID 25758363. Dissociative disorders and PTSD are consistently associated with increased NSSI [nonsuicidal self-injury] and SA/SI [suicidal ideation and suicide attempts]. 
  17. ^ Simmons, Brian (2017). "Coming out Mormon: An examination of religious orientation, spiritual trauma, and PTSD among Mormon and ex-Morman LGBTQQA adults" (PDF). University of Georgia Theses and Dissertations: 99. Therefore, data from this study would indicate that LDS teachings and beliefs are often experienced as spiritually damaging to LGBTQQA members and former members. Similarly, the study respondents presented as having substantial PTSD symptomology related to their experiences within Mormonism, with approximately three-quarters (73.4%, n=204) likely meeting criteria for associated PTSD diagnosis during their lifetime. This prevalence is far above the 8% estimated for the U.S. population. 
  18. ^ Williams, Brian (2017). "Coming out Mormon". University of Georgia. The majority of [the 278 survey] participants (85.6%) were raised in an LDS family and half (51.8%) indicated they still attend LDS services at least monthly. On average, participants identified 13.8 religious beliefs, teachings, or experiences as 'damaging' or 'extremely damaging.' A majority of participants (89.2%) likely met criteria for PTSD diagnosis related to their religious experiences. ... Overall, the findings of this study indicate LGBTQQA Mormon and ex-Mormon adults experience a substantial amount of spiritual trauma and PTSD related to their religious experiences. 
  19. ^ Olsen, Jessica (2017-01-20). "Timeline". The Daily Universe. BYU. Diakses tanggal 2017-02-09. 
  20. ^ Edmonds-Allen, Marian (2016-02-03). "Suicides or Not, LDS Is Harming LGBT Youth". Advocate. Advocate. Diakses tanggal 2017-01-15. 
  21. ^ Oakley, Blake (2016-08-03). "LDS LGBT Suicides On The Rise: Can the LDS Church do more?". Utah Valley University. The Review. Diakses tanggal 2016-11-29. 
  22. ^ Greene, David (2016-07-07). "Mama Dragons Try To Prevent Suicides Among Mormon-LGBT Children". NPR. Diakses tanggal 2016-11-29. 
  23. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher (2016-01-28). "Suicide fears, if not actual suicides, rise in wake of Mormon same-sex policy". The Salt Lake Tribune. Diakses tanggal 2016-11-29. 
  24. ^ Olsen, Jessica (2017-01-20). "Timeline". BYU. The Daily Universe. Diakses tanggal 2017-02-09. 
  25. ^ Parkinson, Daniel; Barker, Michael. "The LGBTQ Mormon Crisis: Responding to the Empirical Research on Suicide" (PDF). Diakses tanggal 2016-11-29. 
  26. ^ Dodson, Braley (2016-11-11). "LGBT BYU students fighting suicide while facing unique mental health challenges". Daily Herald. Diakses tanggal 2017-01-16. 
  27. ^ "Dr. Jeffery Jensen MD". health.usnews.com. U.S. News & World Report L.P. 
  28. ^ Jensen, Jeffrey R.. "We See What We Believe: The Heterosexualization of Gay Men and Lesbians in the LDS Church" Washington D.C. (1997).
  29. ^ Jensen, Jeffrey R.. "Homosexuality: A Psychiatrist's Response to LDS Social Services" (1996).
  30. ^ "American Psychiatric Association Rebukes Reparative Therapy". sciencesources.eurekalert.org. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 1998-12-14. 
  31. ^ "Interview With Elder Dallin H. Oaks and Elder Lance B. Wickman: "Same-Gender Attraction"". Mormon Newsroom. LDS Church. April 2006. If a young man says, “Look, I really want these [homosexual] feelings to go away… I would do anything for these feelings to go away,” is it legitimate to look at clinical therapy of some sort that would address those issues? Well, it may be appropriate for that person to seek therapy. Certainly the Church doesn’t counsel against that kind of therapy. The Church rarely takes a position on which treatment techniques are appropriate." 
  32. ^ a b Prince, Gregory A. (2017-09-27). "Science vs. Dogma: Biology Challenges the LDS Paradigm of Homosexuality" (PDF). thc.utah.edu. University of Utah Tanner Humanities Center.  Video.
  33. ^ "Seeking Professional Help". mormonandgay.lds.org. LDS Church. Diakses tanggal 2016-11-11. 

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