Budidaya semut rangrang

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Semut Rangrang

Klasifikasi Semut Rangrang[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Kerajaan: Animalia
  • Filum: Arthropoda
  • Kelas: Insecta
  • Ordo:   Hymenoptera
  • Famili: Formicidae
  • Upafamili: Formicinae
  • Bangsa: Oecophyllini
  • Genus: Oecophylla

Penyebaran Semut Rangrang[sunting | sunting sumber]

(Semut) Rangrang atau kerangga (Oecophylla) adalah semut berukuran agak besar yang dikenal memiliki kemampuan tinggi dalam membentuk anyaman untuk sarangnya. Dalam bahasa Inggris ia disebut weaver ant atau "semut penganyam". Rangrang sebagaimana banyak semut lain adalah serangga sosial dan membentuk koloni. Koloni rangrang dapat sangat tinggi populasinya.

Di dunia dikenal dua jenis rangrang yang masih menyintas. Sisanya ditemukan dalam bentuk fosil. Jenis pertama adalah rangrang asia (O. smaragdina) yang tersebar luas dari Pakistan sampai Australia bagian utara dan rangrang afrika (O. longinoda) yang menghuni kawasan tropis di Afrika.

Serangga ini bersifat teritorial (menjaga tempat hidupnya) dan bertemperamen "galak". Rangrang tidak segan-segan menyerang apa pun yang mendekati kawasan aktivitasnya. Karena perilaku ini, banyak pemilik pohon buah di Asia Tenggara memanfaatkannya untuk menjaga buah yang mulai ranum. Selain sebagai penjaga, rangrang dimanfaatkan manusia sebagai sumber pakan burung berkicau peliharaan. Larvanya dikenal sebagai kroto dan disukai oleh burung pemakan serangga. Kroto merupakan komoditas perdagangan sekunder sebagai tambahan penghasilan petani.

Fase Perkembangan Semut Rangrang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kroto super memiliki fase bertelur yang terkondusif atau terprogram. Tahap pertumbuhan di mulai dari telur, larva, pupa hingga menjadi semut dewasa. Secara keseluruhan, dari telur menuju semut dewasa berlangsung sekitar 30 hari. Adapun detail proses dari telur sampai dewasa :

  • Telur Ke Larva = 7 Hari
  • Larva Ke Pupa = 14 Hari
  • Pupa Ke Semut Dewasa = 9 Hari

Dalam fase bertelur, telur semut rang-rang juga memiliki siklus perubahan telur menuju dewasa. Berikut detailnya dari siklus telur menuju dewasa :

Ratu Akan Menghasilkan Telur yang akan berubah menjadi , Larva dan Pupa. Masa perunbahan ini memerlukan waktu 21 hari. Selanjutnya Pupa akan berubah menjadi semut yaitu Semut Pekerja, Semut Pejantan dan Semut Ratu. Proses Pupa menuju semut ini memerlukan waktu 9 Hari.

Jenis-Jenis Semut Rangrang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ratu Semut Kroto[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ratu Semut Kroto merupakan pusat dari sumua koloni Semut Kroto. Dalam setiap koloni Semut Kroto sudah di pastikan memiliki ratu semut. Berikut ciri-ciri ratu Semut Kroto:

  • Ratu Semut Kroto Berukuran 20-25 mm
  • Memiliki warna hijau atau coklat
  • Ratu Semut Kroto memiliki perut yang besar
  • Ketika belum kawin, ratu Semut Kroto memiliki sayap
  • Ratu Semut Kroto Dapat di temui di lokasi yang aman dari gangguan
  • Selalu berada pada daun yang masih segar

Semut Kroto Jantan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Semut Kroto jantan adalah salah satu Semut Kroto yang memiliki daya hidup yang sangat singkat yaitu hanya mencapai satu minggu. Semut Kroto jantan ini hanya bertugas membuahi ratu Semut Kroto saja. Setelah itu Semut Kroto jatan akan mati. Semut Kroto jantan ini memiliki warna kehitam-hitaman.

Semut Kroto Pekerja[sunting | sunting sumber]

Banyak yang berpendapat bahwa Semut Kroto pekerja ini memiliki tipe Semut Kroto yang umum. Semut Kroto pekerja ini mirip seperti semut-semut pada biasa yng sering kita jumpai. Berikut ciri umum Semut Kroto pekerja:

  • Semut Kroto pekerja memiliki warna orange
  • Warta tidak dominan seperti ratu Semut Kroto yaitu hijau
  • Memiliki ukuran tubuh antara 5-6 mm
  • Semut Kroto pekerja merupakan Semut Kroto yang mandul
  • Selalu tinggal di dalam sarang
  • Semut Kroto pekerja merawat Semut Kroto yang masih muda

Semut Kroto Prajurit[sunting | sunting sumber]

Semut Kroto prajurit memiliki tugas yang sangat vital. Dalam suatu koloni, Semut Kroto prajurit lah yang memiliki jumlah yang banyak. Adapun ciri Semut Kroto prajurit sebagai berikut:

  • Semut Kroto prajurit memiliki warna yang hampir sama dengan Semut Kroto pekerja.
  • Semut Kroto prajurit memiliki ukuran tubuh lebih besar dari Semut Kroto pekerja yaitu 8-10 mm
  • Terdapat rahang dan gigi yang kuat pada Semut Kroto prajurit
  • Semut Kroto prajurit juga memiliki kaki yang kuat
  • Semut Kroto prajurit bertugas membangun dan menjaga sarang
  • Sebagai penjaga lokasi dalam satu koloni semut kroto

Jenis-Jenis Kroto[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kroto Halus[sunting | sunting sumber]

Memiliki ciri-ciri seperti :

  • Tidak awet, atau tidak tahan lama.
  • Dapat bertahan kurang lebih satu minggu.
  • Terdiri dari calon bakalan semut betina yang mandul, baik yang berukuran kecil maupun besar.

Kroto Kasar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Memiliki ciri-ciri sebagai berikut :

  • Kroto jenis ini juga tergolong tidak awet.
  • Daya tahannya pun juga kurang lebih sekitar satu minggu.
  • Kroto jenis ini merupakan kroto yang terdiri atas calon ratu semut dan juga semut pejantan.

Kroto Basah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Memiliki ciri-ciri yaitu :

  • Kroto ini tergolong mudah busuk.
  • Namun mengandung protein tinggi yang digemari oleh burung kicauan.
  • Umumnya hanya bertahan Cuma satu hari.
  • Terdiri atas telur yang menyerupai larva kecil.

Media Pembudidayaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Media Toples
  • Media Besek
  • Media Paralon
  • Media Kardus

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Internal Liks[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • AntWeb from The California Academy of Sciences
  • AntBase – a taxonomic database with literature sources
  • AntWiki – Bringing Ants to the World
  • Ant Species Fact Sheets from the National Pest Management Association on Argentine, Carpenter, Pharaoh, Odorous, and other ant species
  • Ant Genera of the World – distribution maps
  • The super-nettles. A dermatologist's guide to ants-in-the-plants
  • Fase Perkembangan Semut Rangrang