Bani Quraizhah

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Detail dari lukisan miniatur Nabi, Ali, dan Para Pengikutnya di Pertempuran Para Tahann Suku Yahudi Beni Qurayzah, ilurasi dari sebuah teks abad ke-19 karya Muhammad Rafi Bazil. Manuskrip tersebut sekarang berada di British Library.

Bani Quraizhah (bahasa Arab: بني قريظة; بنو قريظة‎, bahasa Ibrani: בני קוריט'ה; ejaan alternatif meliputi Qurayza, Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, Kureyza, atau ejaan lama Koreiza) adalah salah satu dari suku-suku Yahudi di Arabia utara yang menetap di wadi Yathrib (sekarang dikenal sebagai Madinah) sampai abad ke-7, yaitu ketika perselisihan mereka dengan Muhammad dan suku-suku Arab Muslim berujung pada pengusiran dan pemusnahan mereka.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Suku-suku Yahudi diperkirakan datang ke Hijaz pada masa peperangan Yahudi-Romawi, dan menetap di Yathrib sambil memperkenalkan budaya pertanian, sehingga membuat mereka berada dalam posisi dominan secara budaya, ekonomi dan politik.[1][2] Namun pada abad ke-5, datang dua suku Arab Bani Aus dan Bani Khazraj dari Yaman, yang mengambil alih dominasi tersebut.[3] Ketika dua suku tersebut terlibat konflik satu sama lain, suku-suku Yahudi yang telah menjadi klien-klien[2][4] atau sekutu-sekutu[3] dari suku-suku Arab tersebut, lalu mendukung pihak-pihak yang berbeda; di mana Bani Quraizhah berpihak pada Bani Aus.[5]

Pada 622, tibalah nabi Islam Muhammad dan pengikutnya yang berhijrah ke Yathrib dari Mekkah, dan diceritakan bahwa ia kemudian membuat suatu pakta perdamaian (Piagam Madinah) dengan para pihak yang berkonflik di Yathrib.[1][6][7] Ketika kota tersebut memperkuat diri dalam rangka menghadapi peperangan melawan suku Mekkah Bani Quraisy, yaitu suku asal Muhammad, timbul ketegangan antara suku-suku Arab Muslim dan suku-suku Yahudi, yang semakin meningkat.[5]

Pada 627 ketika pasukan Mekkah dan para sekutunya mengepung kota tersebut dalam Pertempuran Khandaq, disebutkan dalam sumber-sumber Islam bahwa Bani Qurayza telah melanggar pakta perdamaian dengan Muhammad dan pengikutnya, karena tidak membantu mempertahankan Yathrib namun malah bersekutu dengan musuh; yaitu menyerang kaum Muslim dari belakang ketika terjadi serangan para penyerang Mekkah dari depan kubu pertahanan.[8] Sebaliknya, dalam sumber-sumber Barat disebutkan bahwa Banu Quraizhah tidak berniat untuk melakukan tindakan tersebut.[9][10]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Watt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kurayza, Banu".
  2. ^ a b Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 192f.
  3. ^ a b Watt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Al-Madina".
  4. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, "Qurayza".
  5. ^ a b Watt, "Muhammad", in: The Cambridge History of Islam.
  6. ^ Firestone, Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam, p. 118, 170. For opinions disputing the early date of the Constitution of Medina, see e.g., Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 119.
  7. ^ Alford Welch, Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Muhammad".
  8. ^ Watt, Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, p. 170-176.
  9. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam, p.49
  10. ^ Watt in Encyclopedia of Islam, Banu Qurayza Article

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi umum[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Encyclopaedia of Islam. Ed. P. Bearman et al., Leiden: Brill, 1960-2005.
  • Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House, 1997. ISBN 965-07-0665-8
  • Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam. Ed. Hamilton A. R. Gibb, Johannes Hendrik Kramers. Leiden:Brill, 1953.
  • Handwörterbuch des Islam. Ed. A. J. Wensinck, J. H. Kramers. Leiden: Brill, 1941.

Suku Yahudi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Arafat, Walid N., "New Light on the Story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina", in: JRAS 1976, p. 100-107.
  • Ahmad, Barakat, Muhammad and the Jews, a Re-examination, New Delhi. Vikas Publishing House for Indian Institute of Islamic studies. 1979
  • Baron, Salo Wittmeyer. A Social and Religious History of the Jews. Volume III: Heirs of Rome and Persia. Columbia University Press, 1957.
  • Firestone, Reuven, "The failure of a Jewish program of public satire in the squares of Medina", in: Judaism (Fall 1997).
  • Hirschberg, Hayyim Ze'ev, Yisrael Ba'Arav. Tel Aviv: Mossad Bialik, 1946.
  • Kister, Meir J., "The Massacre of the Banu Quraiza. A re-examination of a tradition", in: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 8 (1986).[butuh klarifikasi]
  • Lecker, Michael, "On Arabs of the Banū Kilāb executed together with the Jewish Banū Qurayza", in: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 19 (1995), p. 69.
  • Newby, Gordon Darnell, A History of the Jews of Arabia: From Ancient Times to Their Eclipse Under Islam (Studies in Comparative Religion). University of South Carolina Press, 1988.
  • Lewis, Bernard, The Jews of Islam. Princeton University Press, 2004.
  • Lewis, Bernard, The Political Language of Islam, University of Chicago Press, 1991.
  • Nemoy, Leon, "Barakat Ahmad's "Muhammad and the Jews"", in: The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 72, No. 4. (April 1982), p. 325.
  • Rubin, Uri, "The Assassination of Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf", Oriens 32 (1990), p. 65-71.
  • Serjeant, R. B., "The "Sunnah Jami'ah, Pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the "Tahrim" of Yathrib: Analysis and Translation of the Documents Comprised in the So-Called Constitution of Medina", in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 41 (1978), p. 1-42.
  • Stillman, Norman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America (1979). ISBN 0-8276-0198-0

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Lecker, Michael, Jews and Arabs in Pre- And Early Islamic Arabia. Ashgate Publishing, 1999.

Latar belakang: Muhammad, Islam dan Arabia[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Abu-Nimer, Mohammed, "A Framework for Nonviolence and Peacebuilding in Islam", in: Journal of Law and Religion Volume 15, No. 1/2 (2000-2001), p. 217-265.
  • Adil, Hajjah Amina, Muhammad: The Messenger of Islam. Islamic Supreme Council of America, 2002.
  • Ananikian, M. H., "Tahrif or the alteration of the bible according to the Moslems", in: The Muslim World Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 1924), p. 63-64.
  • Ayoub, Mahmoud, "Dhimmah in Qur'an and Hadith", in: Arab Studies Quarterly 5 (1983), p. 179.
  • Brown, Daniel W., A New Introduction to Islam. Blackwell Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-631-21604-9
  • Firestone, Reuven, Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-512580-0
  • Guillaume, Alfred, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press, 1955. ISBN 0-19-636033-1
  • Hashmi, Sohail H., Buchanan, Allen E. & Moore, Margaret, States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Hawting, Gerald R. & Shareef, Abdul-Kader A., Approaches to the Qur'an. Routledge, 1993. ISBN 0-415-05755-8
  • Heck, Gene W., "Arabia Without Spices: An Alternate Hypothesis", in: Journal Of The American Oriental Society 123 (2003), p. 547-567.
  • Hodgson, Marshall G.S., The Venture of Islam. University of Chicago Press, 1974.
  • Inamdar, Subhash, Muhammad and the Rise of Islam: The Creation of Group Identity. Psychosocial Press, 2001.
  • Khadduri, Majid, War and Peace in the Law of Islam. Johns Hopkins Press, 1955.
  • Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, p. 229-233.[butuh klarifikasi]
  • Meri, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 2005. ISBN 0-415-96690-6.
  • Muir, William, A Life of Mahomet and History of Islam to the Era of the Hegira, vol. 3. London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1861.
  • Nomani, Shibli, Sirat al-Nabi. Karachi: Pakistan Historical Society, 1970.
  • Norcliffe, David, Islam: Faith and Practice. Sussex Academic Press, 1999.
  • Paret, Rudi, Mohammed und der Koran. Geschichte und Verkündigung des arabischen Propheten.
  • Peters, Francis E., Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. State University of New York Press, 1994. ISBN 0-7914-1875-8.
  • Peters, Francis E., Islam. A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press, 2003.
  • Peterson, Daniel C., Muhammad: the prophet of God. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 2007.
  • Ramadan, Tariq, In the Footsteps of the Prophet. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Rodinson, Maxime, Muhammad: Prophet of Islam, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2002. ISBN 1-86064-827-4
  • Watt, William Montgomery, "Muhammad", in: The Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 1. Cambridge University Press, 1970.
  • Watt, William Montgomery, Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman. Oxford University Press, 1961.
  • Watt, William Montgomery, Muhammad at Medina, 1956.
  • Zeitlin, Irving, The Historical Muhammad. Polity Press 2007. ISBN 0-7456-3998-4

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]