Babak Khorramdin

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Babak Khorramdin
Papak Xorramdin.jpg
Patung Babak Khorramdin di kota Babek, Republik Otonom Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan
Nama asalبابک خرمدین
Lahir795 atau 798
Kaleybar,[1] Persia
Meninggal7 Januari 838 (usia 40 atau 43)[2]
Samarra
Tahun aktif23 tahun
Dikenal atasPemimpin Khorram-Dinān
Lawan politikKekhalifahan Abbasiyah

Bābak Khorramdin (secara resmi disebut "Pāpak" artinya "Bapak Muda") (bahasa Persia: بابک خرمدین, pengucapan alternatif: Pāpak Khorramdin; 795, menurut beberapa sumber lain 798— Januari 838[3]) adalah salah satu pemimpin revolusioner Persia utama[4][5][6][7][8][9] asal Iran[10] berdarah Khorram-Dinān[11] ("Orang-orang dari agama kesenangan"), yang merupakan gerakan pembebasan lokal yang berjuang melawan Kekhalifahan Abbasiyah. Pemberontakan Iranianisasi[12] oleh Babak, dari pangkalannya di Azerbaijan, barat laut Iran,[13] menyerukan kembalinya kejayaan politik atas masa lalu Iran.[14] Pemberontakan Khorramdin di Babak menyebar ke wilayah Barat dan Tengah Iran dan berlangsung selama lebih dari dua puluh tahun sebelum dikalahkan saat Babak berkhianat.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ saeed Nafīsī, Bābak-e Ḵorramdīn, 2nd ed., Tehran, 1342 Š./1963, p.152
  2. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Yusofi
  3. ^ 3 Safar 223 A.H.
  4. ^ Arthur Goldschmidt, Lawrence Davidson, "A concise history of the Middle East", Westview Press; Eighth Edition (July 21, 2005). Pg 81: "..a Persian named Babak whose rebellion lasted twenty years. Victorious in every battle, these uprisings were inspired by Persia's pre-Islamic religions, such as Zoroastrianism (The faith of Sassanid rulers) and a peasant movement called Mazdakism"
  5. ^ Whittow (1996), The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600–1025. New studies in medieval history, London: Macmillan, hlm. 195, 203 & 215 

    Azerbaijan was the scene of frequent anti-caliphal and anti-Arab revolts during the eighth and ninth centuries, and Byzantine sources talk of Persian warriors seeking refuge in the 830s from the caliph's armies by taking service under the Byzantine emperor Theophilos. [...] Azerbaijan had a Persian population and was a traditional centre of the Zoroastrian religion. [...] The Khurramites were a [...] Persian sect, influenced by Shiite doctrines, but with their roots in a pre-Islamic Persian religious movement.

  6. ^ Daniel Pipes, "Slave soldiers and Islam: the genesis of a military system ", Middle East Forum, 1981. pg 153: "Al-Mutasim undertook two military campaigns during his caliphate, the attack on Amorium (a town in Anatolia) and the suppression of the Persian rebel Babak."
  7. ^ Bernard Lewis, "The Arabs in History", Oxford University Press, 2002. pp 109–110.
  8. ^ Armenian historian Vardan Areweltsʻi, ca. 1198–1271 notes: In these days, a man of the PERSIAN race, named Bab, who had went from Baltat killed many of the race of Ismayil(what Armenians called Arabs) by sword and took many slaves and thought himself to be immortal... See: La domination arabe en Armènie, extrait de l’ histoire universelle de Vardan, traduit de l’armènian et annotè, J. Muyldermans, Louvain et Paris, 1927, pg 119: En ces jours-lá, un homme de la race PERSE, nomm é Bab, sortant de Baltat, faiser passer par le fil de l’épée beaucoup de la race d’Ismayēl tandis qu’il.. Original Grabar: Havoursn haynosig ayr mi hazkes Barsitz Pap anoun yelyal i Baghdada, arganer zpazoums i sour suseri hazken Ismayeli, zpazoums kerelov. yev anser zinkn anmah. yev i mium nvaki sadager yeresoun hazar i baderazmeln youroum ent Ismayeli
  9. ^ The Arab historian ʻAlī ibn Aḥmad ibn Ḥazm (994–1064) mentions the different Iranian revolts against the Caliphate in Al-Faṣl fi l-Milal & l-Ahwāʾ & n-Niḥal.

    The Persians had the great land expanse and were greater than all other people and thought of themselves as better... after their defeated by Arabs, they rose up to fight against Islam but God did not give them victory. Among their leaders were Sunbādh, Muqanna‘, Ustasīs, Bābak and others.
    «أن الفرس كانوا من سعة الملك وعلو اليد على جميع الأمم وجلالة الخطير في أنفسهم حتى أنهم كانوا يسمون أنفسهم الأحرار والأبناء وكانوا يعدون سائر الناس عبيداً لهم فلما امتحنوا بزوال الدولة عنهم على أيدي العرب وكانت العرب أقل الأمم عند الفرس خطراً تعاظمهم الأمر وتضاعفت لديهم المصيبة وراموا كيد الإسلام بالمحاربة في أوقات شتى ففي كل ذلك يظهر الله سبحانه وتعالى الحق وكان من قائمتهم سنبادة واستاسيس والمقنع وبابك وغيرهم »Ibn Ḥazm, ʻAlī ibn Aḥmad (1995), Al-Faṣl Fī Al-Milal Wa-Al-Ahwāʾ Wa-Al-Niḥal (edisi ke-1st), Bayrūt, Lubnān: Dār al-Jīl 

  10. ^ Bernard Lewis (1991), "The Political Language of Islam", University of Chicago Press, pp 314. "The last and most nearly successful of the Iranian movements, however was that of Babak, who established his independence in Adharbayjan early in al-Mamun's reign."
  11. ^ "Bābak". Encyclopedia Britannica. Diakses tanggal 2017-01-13. 
  12. ^ Bernard Lewis (1991), "The Political Language of Islam", University of Chicago Press, pp 482):""Babak's Iranianizing rebellion in Azerbaijan gave occasion for sentiments at the capital to harden against men who were sympathetic to the more explicitly Iranian tradition"
  13. ^ F. Daftary (1999) Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khurasan and Transoxania During Umayyad and Early 'Abbasid Times In History of Civilizations of Central Asia, vol. IV, part One, ed. M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, pp. 41–60. excerpt from pg 50: "The activities of the Khurammiya reached their peak in the movement of Babak al-Khurrami, whose protracted rebellion based in north-western Iran seriously threatened the stability of the Abbassid caliphate.... This revolt lasting for more than twenty years, soon spread from Azerbaijan (North/West Iran) to western and central parts of Iran.
  14. ^ Kathryn Babayan, "Mystics, monarchs, and messiahs ", Harvard CMES, 2002. pg 138: "Babak revolted in Azerbaijan (816–838), evoking Abu Muslim as a heroic symbol..and called for a return to the Iranian past"

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]