Aksara tulang ramalan

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Aksara tulang ramalan
Shang dynasty inscribed scapula.jpg
Jenis aksara
Bahasa Tionghoa kuno
Periode
Zaman Perunggu Tiongkok
Aksara yang diturunkan
Aksara Han
Aksara tulang ramalan
Hanzi: 甲骨文
Makna literal: "Aksara cangkang dan tulang"

Aksara tulang ramalan (Tionghoa: 甲骨文) adalah kumpulan ukiran (atau, jarang, kuasan-tertulis[1]) aksara Han kuno yang ditemukan di tulang ramalan, yakni tulang hewan atau cangkang kura-kura yang digunakan dalam ramalan pada Zaman Perunggu Tiongkok. Catatan sebagian besar[2] ramalan piromantik istana kerajaan akhir Dinasti Shang di ibu kota Yin (Anyang saat ini, Provinsi Henan); menandakan tarikh contoh tulang ramalan dari Anyang bervariasi dari sekitar abad ke-14-11 SEU[3][4][5] sampai sekitar tahun 1200–1050 SEU.[6][7][8][9] Sangat sedikit tulisan tulang ramalan bertarikh ke awal Dinasti Zhou yang berikutnya, karena piromansi mengalami kemerosotan dan ramalan dengan daun seribu menjadi lebih umum.[10] Tulisan tulang ramalan Shang akhir, bersama segelintir aksara kontemporer dalam gaya berbeda tercetak pada perunggu, merupakan kumpulan teks tertulis penting dari tulisan Tionghoa yang paling awal[11], yang esensial untuk studi etimologi bahasa Tionghoa, karena tulisan Shang merupakan leluhur langsung untuk tulisan Tionghoa modern. Tulisan Shang juga merupakan anggota tertua yang dikenal dan leluhur dari keluarga aksara Han.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Qiú 2000 p. 60 states that a few were written with a brush and either ink or cinnabar.
  2. ^ A few such shells and bones do not record divinations, but bear other records such as those of hunting trips, records of sacrifices, wars or other events (Xu Yahui. 許雅惠. 2002, p. 34. (Tionghoa)), calendars (Xu Yahui p. 31), or practice inscriptions; these are termed shell and bone inscriptions, rather than oracle bones, because no oracle (divination) was involved. However, they are still written in oracle bone script.
  3. ^ "Oracle Bone Script". Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. Oracle-bone script (jiaguwen), the earliest known form of systematic Chinese writing, dates from the fourteenth to eleventh century BCE. 
  4. ^ Qiu Xigui (裘錫圭 2000) Chinese Writing, p. 29.
  5. ^ Xu Yahui, p. 4.
  6. ^ William G. Boltz: "Early Chinese Writing", World Archaeology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems (1986), pp. 420–36 (436):

    The earliest known form of Chinese writing are the so-called 'oracle bone inscriptions' of the late Shang, divinatory inscriptions incised on turtle plastrons and ox scapulae, dating from about 1200–1050 B.C. Shang bronze inscriptions from about 1100 B.C. constitute the second earliest source of evidence for archaic Chinese writing.

  7. ^ David N. Keightley: "Art, Ancestors, and the Origins of Writing in China", Representations, No. 56, Special Issue: The New Erudition (1996), pp. 68–95 (68):

    The oracle-bone inscriptions of the Late Shang dynasty (c. 1200–1050 B.C.), the earliest body of writing we yet possess for East Asia, were written in a script ancestral to all subsequent forms of Chinese writing.

  8. ^ Keightley 1978 pp. xiii, 171–6; Boltz 1994 & 2003, p. 31; the dating of the end of the Shang is still a controversial topic.
  9. ^ John DeFrancis: Visible Speech. The Diverse Oneness of Writing Systems: Chinese
  10. ^ Nylan, Michael (2001). The five "Confucian" classics, p. 217
  11. ^ Boltz (1994 & 2003), p.31