Templat:Sistem biologi

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Linnaeus
1735[1]
2 kerajaan
Haeckel
1866[2]
3 kerajaan
Chatton
1925[3][4]
2 kekaisaran
Copeland
1938[5][6]
4 kerajaan
Whittaker
1969[7]
5 kerajaan
Woese et al.
1977[8][9]
6 kerajaan
Woese et al.
1990[10]
3 domain
Cavalier-Smith
2004[11]
6 kerajaan
(tidak ditangani) Protista Prokaryota Mychota Monera Eubacteria Bacteria Bacteria
Archaebacteria Archaea
Eukaryota Protoctista Protista Protista Eukarya Protozoa
Chromista
Vegetabilia Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae Plantae
Protoctista Fungi Fungi Fungi
Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia
  1. ^ C. Linnaeus (1735). Systemae Naturae, sive regna tria naturae, systematics proposita per classes, ordines, genera & species. 
  2. ^ E. Haeckel (1866). Generelle Morphologie der Organismen. Reimer, Berlin. 
  3. ^ É. Chatton (1925). "Pansporella perplexa. Réflexions sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires". Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 10-VII: 1–84. 
  4. ^ É. Chatton (1937). Titres et Travaux Scientifiques (1906–1937). Sette, Sottano, Italy. 
  5. ^ H. Copeland (1938). "The kingdoms of organisms". Quarterly review of biology 13: 383–420. doi:10.1086/394568. 
  6. ^ H. F. Copeland (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. 
  7. ^ Whittaker RH (January 1969). "New concepts of kingdoms of organisms". Science 163 (863): 150–60. doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. PMID 5762760. 
  8. ^ C. R. Woese, W. E. Balch, L. J. Magrum, G. E. Fox and R. S. Wolfe (August 1977). "An ancient divergence among the bacteria". Journal of Molecular Evolution 9 (4): 305–311. doi:10.1007/BF01796092. PMID 408502. 
  9. ^ Woese CR, Fox GE (November 1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74 (11): 5088–90. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.11.5088. PMC 432104. PMID 270744. 
  10. ^ Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. PMC 54159. PMID 2112744. 
  11. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T. (2004), "Only six kingdoms of life", Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271: 1251–62, doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2705, PMC 1691724, PMID 15306349, diakses 2010-04-29