Standard Oil

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Standard Oil Co. Inc.
Jenis sebelumnya Cleveland, Ohio Corporation (1870–1882)
Business Trust (1882–1892)
New Jersey Perusahaan induk (1899–1911)[1]
Industri Migas
Penerus See list of successor entities
Didirikan 1870
Ditutup 1911
Kantor pusat Cleveland, Ohio (1870–1885)
New York City, New York (1885–1911)[2]
Tokoh penting John D. Rockefeller, Founder & Chairman
Stephen V. Harkness, initial investor
Henry M. Flagler, Senior Executive
John D. Archbold, Vice President
William Rockefeller, Senior Executive & New York Representative
Samuel Andrews, Chemist & First Chief of Refining Operations
Charles Pratt, Senior Executive
Henry H. Rogers, Senior Executive
Oliver H. Payne, Senior Executive
Daniel O'Day, Senior Executive
Jabez A. Bostwick, Senior Executive & First Treasurer
William G. Warden,[3] Senior Executive
Jacob Vandergrift,[4] Senior Executive
Produk Bahan bakar, pelumas, petrokimia
Karyawan 60.000 (1909)[5]

Standard Oil Co. Inc. adalah bekas perusahaan minyak asal Amerika Serikat. Didirikan tahun 1870 sebagai korporasi di Ohio, Standard pernah menjadi pengilang minyak bumi terbesar di dunia.[6] Sejarahnya yang kontroversial sebagai perusahaan multinasional pertama dan terbesar di dunia pada masanya berakhir tahun 1911, ketika Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat memutuskan bahwa Standard melakukan monopoli ilegal.

Standard Oil mendominasi pasar produk minyak melalui integrasi horizontal di sektor pengilangan, dan kemudian juga pada integrasi vertikal. Standard Oil menguasai produksi dan logistik, memangkas harga, dan mematikan kompetitornya. Para kritikus menuduh Standard memasang harga agresif untuk menghancurkan kompetitornya dan membentuk monopoli yang membahayakan konsumen.

John D. Rockefeller merupakan pendiri dan pemegang saham utama. Dengan dipecahnya Standard Oil menjadi 33 perusahaan yang lebih kecil, Rockefeller menjadi orang terkaya dunia pada waktu itu.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Anderson, Irvine H. Jr., The Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. and United States East Asian Policy, 1933-1941, Princeton University Press, 1975.
  • Bringhurst, Bruce. Antitrust and the Oil Monopoly: The Standard Oil Cases, 1890–1911. New York: Greenwood Press, 1979.
  • Chernow, Ron. Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. London: Warner Books, 1998.
  • Cochran, S., Encountering Chinese Networks: Western, Japanese, and Chinese Corporations in China, 1880-1937, University of California Press, 2000.
  • Droz, R.V. Whatever Happened to Standard Oil?, 2004. Retrieved June 25, 2005.
  • Folsom, Jr., Burton W. John D. Rockefeller and the Oil Industry from The Myth of the Robber Barons. New York: Young America, 2003.
  • Giddens, Paul H. Standard Oil Co. (Companies and men). New York: Ayer Co. Publishing, 1976.
  • Henderson, Wayne. Standard Oil: The First 125 Years. New York: Motorbooks International, 1996.
  • Hidy, Ralph W. and Muriel E. Hidy. History of Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey : Pioneering in Big Business 1882–1911). New York: Ayer Co. Publishing, 1987.
  • Jones; Eliot. The Trust Problem in the United States 1922. Chapter 5; online edition
  • Klein, Henry H. Dynastic America and Those Who Own It. New York: Kessinger Publishing, [1921] Reprint, 2003.
  • Knowlton, Evelyn H. and George S. Gibb. History of Standard Oil Co.: Resurgent Years 1911–1927. New York: Harper & Row, 1956.
  • Larson, Henrietta M., Evelyn H. Knowlton and Charles S. Popple. New Horizons 1927–1950 (History of Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey), Volume 3). New York: Harper & Row, 1971.
  • Latham, Earl ed. John D. Rockefeller: Robber Baron or Industrial Statesman?, 1949. Primary and secondary sources.
  • Manns, Leslie D. "Dominance in the Oil Industry: Standard Oil from 1865 to 1911" in David I. Rosenbaum ed, Market Dominance: How Firms Gain, Hold, or Lose it and the Impact on Economic Performance. Praeger, 1998. online edition
  • Montague, Gilbert Holland. The Rise And Progress of the Standard Oil Co. (1902) online edition
  • Montague, Gilbert Holland. "The Rise and Supremacy of the Standard Oil Co.," Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 16, No. 2 (February, 1902), pp. 265–292 in JSTOR
  • Montague, Gilbert Holland. "The Later History of the Standard Oil Co.," Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2 (February, 1903), pp. 293–325 in JSTOR
  • Nevins, Allan. John D. Rockefeller: The Heroic Age of American Enterprise. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1940.
  • Nevins, Allan. Study In Power: John D. Rockefeller, Industrialist and Philanthropist. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953.
  • Nowell, Gregory P. (1994). Mercantile States and the World Oil Cartel, 1900–1939. Cornell University Press. 
  • Standard Oil Co. of California. Whatever happened to Standard Oil?, 1980. Retrieved June 25, 2005.
  • Tarbell, Ida M. The History of the Standard Oil Co., 1904. The famous original expose in McClure's Magazine of Standard Oil.
  • Wall, Bennett H. Growth in a Changing Environment: A History of Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey), Exxon Corp., 1950–1975. New York: Harpercollins, 1989.
  • Williamson, Harold F. and Arnold R. Daum. The American Petroleum Industry: The Age of Illumination, 1859–1899, 1959: vol 2, American Petroleum Industry: the Age of Energy 1899–1959, 1964. The standard history of the oil industry. online edition of vol 1
  • Yergin, Daniel. The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

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