Paul Revere

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Paul Revere
John Singleton Copley, Lukisan Paul Revere. sekitar 1768–70
Lahir 1 Januari 1735
(O.S.: 21 Desember 1734)
North End, Boston, Massachusetts
Meninggal 10 Mei 1818 (umur 83)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Pekerjaan pandai perak, pimpinan militer kolonial
Pasangan Sarah Orne (1757–73) (kematiannya)
Rachel Walker (1773–1813) (kematiannya)
Anak 8 dengan Sarah Orne (6 selamat)
8 dengan Rachel Walker (5 selamat)
Tanda tangan

Paul Revere ( /rɪˈvɪər/; 21 Desember 1734 O.S. – 10 Mei 1818)[N 1] adalah seorang pandai perak, pembuat gravir, industrialis awal, dan patriot dalam Revolusi Amerika.

Paul Revere adalah pahlawan nasional Amerika yang jasanya dikenang bukan karena dia berjuang dengan senjata, tapi karena jasanya untuk memberitahu kedatangan pasukan Inggris lewat kode tertentu. Kode tersebut adalah;"two if by sea, one if by land". Artinya: dua pelita akan digantungkan di menara bel Christ Church kalau pasukan Inggris datang melalui Charles River ke Cambridge, atau menggantung sebuah pelita kalau pasukan Inggrisnya datang lewat darat melalui Boston Neck. Pada 18 April 1775, Paul Revere mengendarai kudanya bergegas menuju kota Lexington sesudah diantarkan oleh dua orang kawannya memakai perahu pada malam hari, menghindari pasukan Inggris yang memasuki perairan Boston. Tugas Paul Revere adalah untuk memberitahu dua orang patriot lainnya, John Hancock dan Samuel Adams, supaya bersiap menghadapi serbuan pasukan Inggris.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Tanggal kelahiran Revere diganti oleh pengubahan antara kalender Julian dan kalender Gregorian, yang berbeda 11 hari, and by the fact that only his baptism, not his actual birth was recorded. While his baptism was recorded on December 22, adjusting for the conversion between Julian and Gregorian calendars changes the date to January 1.[1][2]

Kutipan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Gill 1891, hlm. 10–11.
  2. ^ Fischer 1994, hlm. 297.

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Alexander, John (2002). Samuel Adams: America's Revolutionary Politician. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 9780742521148. 
  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III (1975) [1964]. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Library of Military History. New York: David McKay. ISBN 978-0-618-00194-1. 
  • Brooks, Victor (1999). The Boston Campaign: April 1775–March 1776. Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: Combined Publishing. ISBN 978-0-585-23453-3. 
  • Drake, Samuel Adams (1899). Historic Mansions and Highways Around Boston. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 1838072. 
  • Fischer, David Hackett (1994). Paul Revere's ride. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508847-6.  This work is extensively footnoted, and contains a voluminous list of primary resources concerning all aspects of the Revere's ride and the battles at Lexington and Concord.
  • Forbes, Esther (1999) [1942]. Paul Revere and the World He Lived in. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-00194-1. 
  • Gettemy, Charles (1905). The True Story of Paul Revere. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 1375230. 
  • Goss, Elbridge Henry (1891). The Life of Colonel Paul Revere. Boston: J. G. Cupples. OCLC 3589045.  (Volume 2)
  • Ketchum, Robert (1999) [1974]. Decisive Day: The Battle For Bunker Hill. New York: Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 9780805060997. 
  • Martello, Robert (2010). Midnight Ride, Industrial Dawn: Paul Revere and the Growth of American Enterprise. Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  • McDonald, Forrest; McDonald, Ellen (April 1980). "The Ethnic Origins of the American People, 1790". The William and Mary Quarterly. Third 37 (2): 179–199. JSTOR 1919495. 
  • McNamara, John (1978). History in Asphalt: The Origin of Bronx Street and Place Names, Borough of the Bronx, New York City. Fleischmanns, New York: Harbor Hill Books. 
  • Miller, Joel J. (2010). The Revolutionary Paul Revere. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson. ISBN 978-1-59555-074-3. 
  • Murrin, John M.; et al. (2002) [1996]. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People, Volume I: To 1877. Florence, Kentucky: Wadsworth-Thomson Learning. 
  • Paul Revere, Artisan, Businessman and Patriot: The Man Behind the Myth. Boston: Paul Revere Memorial Association (PRMA). 1988. 
  • Revere, Paul (1961). Paul Revere's Three Accounts of His Famous Ride. Introduction by Edmund Morgan. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-9619999-0-2. 
  • Ruland, Richard; Bradbury, Malcolm (1991). From Puritanism to Postmodernism: A History of American Literature. New York: Viking. 
  • Schmidt, Leah A (2002). Revere Beach. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-1030-9. 
  • Steblecki, Edith J. (1985). Paul Revere and Freemasonry. Boston: Paul Revere Memorial Association (PRMA). OCLC 17485269. 
  • Triber, Jayne (1998). A True Republican: The Life of Paul Revere. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 978-1-55849-139-7. 
  • United States, National Archives and Records Service. Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789. National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration. 
  • Upham, Warren (1920). Minnesota Geographic Names: Their Origin and Historic Significance. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society. OCLC 34232868. 
  • Falino, Jeannine (2001). "The Pride Which Pervades thro every Class": The Customers of Paul Revere. Boston, Massachusetts: University Press of Virginia. 
  • Federhen, Deborah (1988). From Artisan to Entrepreneur: Paul Revere's Silver Shop Operation. Boston, Massachusetts: Paul Revere Memorial Association. 

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]