Kapitan Cina

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Kapitan Cina atau Capitan China pada awalnya merupakan gelar Portugis untuk wakil penempatan Cina.[1][2] Pada abad ke-15, para pemerintah Asia Tenggara (seperti di Melaka dan Banten) memilih untuk berurusan dengan seorang individu daripada setiap kelompok etnik yang tinggal dalam wilayah masing-masing.[3][4] Kaedah pemerintahan secara tak langsung ini turut diwarisi oleh penjajah Portugis yang menaklukan Melaka pada abad ke-16, diikuti oleh kekuasaan Belanda di Hindia Belanda, dan Inggris di Malaya Britania.[3] Setelah berakhirnya zaman penjajahan, gelar Kapitan sekedar hanya untuk penghormatan.[3]

Kapitan Kuala Lumpur[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • 1858 - 1861: Hiu Siew
  • 1862 - 1868: Liu Ngim Kong
  • 1868 - 1885: Yap Ah Loy
  • 1885 - 1889: Yap Ah Shak
  • 1889 - 1902: Yap Kwan Seng

Kapitan Cina lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The Kapitan System and Secret Societies published in Chinese politics in Malaysia: a history of the Malaysian Chinese Association‎ - Page 14
  2. ^ Southeast Asia-China interactions: reprint of articles from the Journal of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, Issue 25 of M.B.R.A.S. reprint, 2007, - Page 549
  3. ^ a b c Ooi, Keat Gin. Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, From Angkor Wat to East Timor, p. 711
  4. ^ Hwang, In-Won. Personalized Politics: The Malaysian State Under Matahtir, p. 56
  5. ^ A social history of the Chinese in Singapore and Malaya, 1800-1911‎ - Page 232
  6. ^ A Gallery of Chinese Kapitans, CS Wong
  7. ^ A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore‎ - Page 77
  8. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 68‎ - Page 34
  9. ^ Triad and Tabut: a survey of the origin and diffusion of Chinese and ...‎ - Page 350
  10. ^ The Straits Settlements, 1826-67: Indian presidency to crown colony‎ - Page 259
  11. ^ Wong Ah Fook: immigrant, builder, and entrepreneur‎ - Page 85
  12. ^ Singapore: wealth, power and the culture of control‎ - Page 49
  13. ^ The Western Malay States, 1850-1873: the effects of commercial development ...‎ - Page 35
  14. ^ One hundred years' history of the Chinese in Singapore‎ - Page 21
  15. ^ A social history of the Chinese in Singapore and Malaya, 1800-1911‎ - Page 267
  16. ^ Toponymics: a study of Singapore street names‎ - Page 345
  17. ^ Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a survey of the Triad Society from 1800 ...‎ - Page 206
  18. ^ Chinese epigraphic materials in Malaysia‎ - Page 452
  19. ^ Studies in the Social History of China and South-east Asia‎ - Page 36
  20. ^ Pope-Hennesy to C.O., 13 October 1869. Co. 144/20. To F.O., 1 September 1869. F.O. 12/34B. To Lord Knutsford, 25 May 1888. C.O. 133/66
  21. ^ The Sarawak Museum journal‎ - Page 9, 1963
  22. ^ The Eastern seas: or, Voyages and adventures in the Indian Archipelago, in ...‎ - Page 363
  23. ^ European commercial expansion in early modern Asia‎ - Page 273
  24. ^ Opium and empire: Chinese society in Colonial Singapore, 1800-1910‎ - Page 195
  25. ^ Kelantan zaman awal: kajian arkeologi dan sejarah di Malaysia By Hassan Shuhaimi bin Nik Abd. Rahman, 1987, Pg 227
  26. ^ Ethnic Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia: a dialogue between tradition and modernity by Leo Suryadinata, 2002, Pg 86
  27. ^ The cultural melting pot By Robert Sin Nyen Tan, 1991, Page 85
  28. ^ Rites of belonging: memory, modernity, and identity in a Malaysian Chinese ... By Jean Elizabeth DeBernardi Page 27
  29. ^ Growing Up in Trengganu By Awang Goneng by Monsoon Books, 2007, Page 161
  30. ^ Reconstructing identities: a social history of the Babas in Singapore‎ by Jürgen Rudolph - Page 149
  31. ^ The Baba of Melaka: culture and identity of a Chinese peranakan community in ...‎ - Page 64
  32. ^ The Portuguese Missions in Malacca and Singapore (1511-1958): Malacca‎ - Page 317
  33. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volumes 11-12‎, 1933, - Page 1
  34. ^ Wong, 1963: 1-2, Studies in ASEAN sociology: urban society and social change‎ - Page 232
  35. ^ Historical Sabah: The Chinese‎ by Danny Tze-Ken Wong, 2005 - Page 57
  36. ^ Wong C.S., 1963, p. 47, Reconstructing identities: a social history of the Babas in Singapore By Jürgen Rudolph, Page 38
  37. ^ See historical Malacca in one day‎ - Page 18 by Marcus Scott-Ross - History - 1973
  38. ^ The overseas Chinese and the 1911 revolution, with special reference to Singapore and Malaya by Yen Ching Hwang, Qinghuang Yan, 1976, Pg 182

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Hwang, In-Won (2003). Personalized Politics: The Malaysian State Under Matahtir. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-185-2
  • Lohanda, Mona (1996). The Kapitan Cina of Batavia, 1837-1942. Jakarta: Djambatan. ISBN 979-428-257-X.
  • Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, From Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-770-5