James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher

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"James while John had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher" adalah sebuah kalimat bahasa Inggris yang dipakai untuk mendemonstrasikan ambiguitas leksikal dan perlunya tanda baca,[1] yang berperan sebagai pengganti intonasi,[2] tekanan, dan jeda dalam perbincangan manusia.[3] Dalam penelitian pemrosesan informasi manusia, kalimat ini dipakai untuk menunjukkan bagaimana pembaca bergantung pada tanda baca untuk memberi arti bagi kalimat ini, terutama dalam konteks memindai beberapa baris teks.[4] Kalimat ini kadang ditunjukkan sebagai teka-teki yang dijawab dengan menambahkan tanda baca.

Kalimat ini berarti: Ada dua murid, James dan John, yang dalam ujian bahasa Inggris diminta mendeskripsikan seorang pria yang, pada masa lalu, pernah menderita demam. John menulis "The man had a cold" yang disalahkan oleh gurunya, sementara James menulis jawaban yang benar, "The man had had a cold." Karena benar, jawaban James telah membuat gurunya senang.

Kalimat ini bisa dipahami lebih jelas lagi dengan menambahkan tanda baca dan penekanan:

James, while John had had "had", had had "had had"; "had had" had had a better effect on the teacher.[5]

Kata 'had' yang dimiringkan berarti 'had' dalam bentuk past perfect.

Penggunaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kalimat ini bisa digunakan sebagai teka-teki tata bahasa[6][7][8] atau bahan ujian,[1][2] yang harus dicari maknanya dengan menambahkan tanda baca yang tepat. Hans Reichenbach memakai kalimat serupa pada tahun 1947 sebagai latihan bagi si pembaca ("John where Jack..."), untuk mengilustrasikan berbagai tingkatan bahasa, terutama bahasa objek dan metabahasa.[9]

Dalam penelitian yang memperlihatkan bagaimana orang-orang menafsirkan informasi dalam lingkungannya, kalimat ini dipakai untuk mendemonstrasikan bagaimana keputusan yang seenaknya bisa mengubah arti secara drastis, analogis terhadap bagaimana perubahan tanda baca dan kutipan dalam kalimat menunjukkan bahwa guru bisa memilih antara jawaban James dan jawaban John. ('James, while John had had "had," had...', atau 'James, while John had had "had had,"...')[10]

Kalimat ini juga dipakai untuk memperlihatkan ketidakjelasan semantik kata "had", sekaligus mendemonstrasikan perbedaan antara memakai kata dan menyebutkan kata.[11] Kalimat ini juga dipakai sebagai contoh sampai serumit manakah suatu bahasa bisa terbentuk namun tetap benar secara sintaksis.[12]

Jasper Fforde memakai variasi frasa ini dalam bukunya The Well of Lost Plots, menunjukkan pemakaian potensialnya dalam buku-buku biasa (serta menekankan sampai "semembingungkan" manakah suatu bahasa bisa terbentuk namun benar secara sintaksis):

"Okay" said the Bellman, whose head was in danger of falling apart like a chocolate orange, "let me get this straight: David Copperfield, unlike Pilgrim’s Progress, which had had 'had', had had 'had had'. 'Had had' had had TGC’s approval?"[13]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Magonet, Jonathan (2004). A rabbi reads the Bible (ed. 2nd). SCM-Canterbury Press. hlm. 19. ISBN 978-0-334-02952-6. Diakses 2009-04-30. "You may remember an old classroom test in English language. What punctuation marks do you have to add to this sentence so as to make sense of it?" 
  2. ^ a b Dundes, Alan; Carl R. Pagter (1987). When you're up to your ass in alligators: more urban folklore from the paperwork empire (ed. Illustrated). Wayne State University Press. hlm. 135. ISBN 0-8143-1867-3. Diakses 2009-04-30. "The object of this and similar tests is to make sense of a series of words by figuring out the correct intonation pattern." 
  3. ^ Hudson, Grover (1999). Essential introductory linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. hlm. 372. ISBN 0-631-20304-4. Diakses 2009-04-30. "Writing is secondary to speech, in history and in the fact that speech and not writing is fundamental to the human species." 
  4. ^ van de Velde, Roger G. (1992). Text and thinking: on some roles of thinking in text interpretation (ed. Illustrated). Walter de Gruyter. hlm. 43. ISBN 3-11-013250-8. Diakses 2009-04-30. "In scanning across lines, readers also make use of the information parts carried along with the punctuatuion markes: a period, a dash, a colon, a semicolon or a comma may signal different degrees of integration/separation between the groupings." 
  5. ^ "Problem C: Operator Jumble". 31st ACM International Collegiate Programming Conference, 2006–2007.
  6. ^ Amon, Mike (2004-01-28). "GADFLY". Financial Times. Diakses 2009-04-30. "HAD up to here? So were readers of last week's column, invited to punctuate "Smith where Jones had had had had had had had had had had had the examiners approval."" 
  7. ^ Jackson, Howard (2002). Grammar and Vocabulary: A Resource Book for Students. Routledge. hlm. 123. ISBN 0-415-23170-1. Diakses 2009-04-30. "Finally, verbal humour is often an ingredient of puzzles. As part of an advertising campaign for its educational website <learn.co.uk>, the Guardian (for 3 january 2001) included the following familiar grammatical puzzle." 
  8. ^ 3802 - Operator Jumble
  9. ^ Reichenbach, Hans (1947) Elements of symbolic logic. London: Collier-MacMillan. Exercise 3-4, p.405; solution p.417.
  10. ^ Weick, Karl E. (2005). Making Sense of the Organization (ed. 8th). Wiley-Blackwell. hlm. 186–187. ISBN 0-631-22319-3. Diakses 2009-04-30. "Once a person has generated/bracketed part of the stream, then the activities of punctuation and connection (parsing) can occur in an effort to transform the raw data into information." 
  11. ^ Lecercle, Jean-Jacques (1990). The violence of language (ed. Illustrated). Routledge. hlm. 86. ISBN 0-415-03431-0. Diakses 2009-04-30. "Suppose I decide that I wish to make up a sentence containing eleven occurrences of the word 'had' in a row ..." 
  12. ^ Hollin, Clive R. (1995). Contemporary Psychology: An Introduction (ed. Illustrated). Routledge. hlm. 34. ISBN 0-7484-0191-1. Diakses 2009-04-30. "Do readers make use of the ways in which sentences are structured?" 
  13. ^ Fforde, Jasper (2003). The Well of Lost Plots. Hodder & Stoughton Ltd. Diakses 2012-04-30. "'Okay' said the Bellman, whose head was in danger of falling apart like a chocolate orange, 'let me get this straight: David Copperfield, unlike Pilgrim’s Progress, which had had 'had', had had 'had had'. 'Had had' had had TGC’s approval?'" 

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