Humanisme Renaisans

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Humanisme Renaisans adalah sekumpulan ajaran intelektual Yunani dan Romawi yang awalnya muncul di Italia, dan kemudian menyebar di Eropa.[1] Ajaran ini berkembang selama abad ke-14 dan ke-15, dan merupakan tanggapan terhadap pendidikan skolastik abad pertengahan yang menekankan studi praktikal, pra-profesional, dan ilmiah. Skolastisisme berupaya mempersiapkan murid untuk menjadi dokter, pengacara, atau teolog profesional, dan pengejaran dilakukan melalui buku logika, filsafat, kedokteran, hukum, dan teknologi,[2] sementara para humanis berupaya agar rakyat (seringkali termasuk perempuan) mampu berbicara dan menulis dengan lancar dan jelas dan maka mampu terlibat dalam kehidupan komunitas mereka dan meyakinkan orang lain untuk melakukan tindakan yang saleh dan bijaksana. Hal ini dicapai melalui studi studia humanitatis, yang kini dikenal dengan nama humaniora: tata bahasa, retorika, sejarah, puisi, dan filsafat moral.[3]

Pusat humanisme yang penting pada masa itu adalah Florence, Naples, Roma, Venesia, Mantua, Ferrara, dan Urbino.

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Nicholas Mann "The Origins of Humanism", Cambridge Companion to Humanism, Jill Kraye, editor [Cambridge University Press, 1996], hal. 1–2).
  2. ^ Craig W. Kallendorf, introduction to Humanist Educational Treatises, edited and translated by Craig W. Kallendorf (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London England: The I Tatti Renaissance Library, 2002) hal. vii.
  3. ^ Paul Oskar Kristeller, Renaissance Thought II: Papers on Humanism and the Arts (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1965), p. 178. See also Kristeller's Renaissance Thought I, "Humanism and Scholasticism In the Italian Renaissance", Byzantion 17 (1944–45), pp. 346–74. Reprinted in Renaissance Thought (New York: Harper Torchbooks), 1961.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bolgar, R. R. The Classical Heritage and Its Beneficiaries: from the Carolingian Age to the End of the Renaissance. Cambridge, 1954.
  • Cassirer, Ernst. Individual and Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy. Harper and Row, 1963.
  • Cassirer, Ernst (Editor), Paul Oskar Kristeller (Editor), John Herman Randall (Editor). The Renaisssance Philosophy of Man. University of Chicago Press, 1969.
  • Cassirer, Ernst. Platonic Renaissance in England. Gordian, 1970.
  • Celenza, Christopher S. The Lost Italian Renaissance: Humanism, Historians, and Latin's Legacy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2004 ISBN 978-0-8018-8384-2
  • Erasmus, Desiderius. "The Epicurean". In Colloquies.
  • Garin, Eugenio. Science and Civic Life in the Italian Renaissance. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
  • Garin, Eugenio. Italian Humanism: Philosophy and Civic Life in the Renaissance. Basil Blackwell, 1965.
  • Garin, Eugenio. History of Italian Philosophy. (2 vols.) Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi, 2008. ISBN 978-90-420-2321-5
  • Grafton, Anthony. Bring Out Your Dead: The Past as Revelation. Harvard University Press, 2004 ISBN 0-674-01597-5
  • Grafton, Anthony. Worlds Made By Words: Scholarship and Community in the Modern West. Harvard University Press, 2009 ISBN 0-674-03257-8
  • Hale, John. A Concise Encyclopaedia of the Italian Renaissance. Oxford University Press, 1981, ISBN 0-500-23333-0.
  • Kallendorf, Craig W, editor. Humanist Educational Treatises. Cambridge, Mass.: The I Tatti Renaissance Library, 2002.
  • Kraye, Jill (Editor). The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Humanism. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Renaissance Thought and Its Sources. Columbia University Press, 1979 ISBN 978-0-231-04513-1
  • Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni. Oration on the Dignity of Man. In Cassirer, Kristeller, and Randall, eds. Renaissance Philosophy of Man. University of Chicago Press, 1969.
  • Skinner, Quentin. Renaissance Virtues: Visions of Politics: Volume II. Cambridge University Press, [2002] 2007.
  • McManus, Stuart M. "Byzantines in the Florentine Polis: Ideology, Statecraft and Ritual during the Council of Florence". Journal of the Oxford University History Society, 6 (Michaelmas 2008/Hilary 2009).
  • Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-19-517510-7. 
  • Nauert, Charles Garfield. Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe (New Approaches to European History). Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Plumb, J. H. ed.: The Italian Renaissance 1961, American Heritage, New York, ISBN 0-618-12738-0 (page refs from 1978 UK Penguin edn).
  • Rossellini, Roberto. The Age of the Medici: Part 1, Cosimo de' Medici; Part 2, Alberti 1973. (Film Series). Criterion Collection.
  • Symonds, John Addington.The Renaissance in Italy. Seven Volumes. 1875-1886.
  • Trinkaus, Charles (1973). "Renaissance Idea of the Dignity of Man". In Wiener, Philip P. Dictionary of the History of Ideas. ISBN 0-684-13293-1. Diakses 2009-12-02. 
  • Trinkaus, Charles. The Scope of Renaissance Humanism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983.
  • Wind, Edgar. Pagan Mysteries in the Renaissance. New York: W.W. Norton, 1969.


Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]