Front Barat (Perang Dunia II)

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Front Barat
Bagian dari Perang Dunia II
Western Front collab.png
Searah jarum jam dari atas kiri: Rotterdam setelah Blitz, Pesawat Heinkel He 111 milik Jerman saat Pertempuran Britania, penerjun payung sekutu ketika Operasi Market Garden, Tentara Amerika berlari menyusuri Wernberg, Jerman, Siege of Bastogne, Tentara Amerika mendarat di Pantai Omaha ketika Operasi Overlord
Tanggal 1939–1945
Lokasi Eropa Utara dan Eropa Barat
Hasil 1939–40: Kemenangan Blok Poros

1944–45: Kemenangan Blok Sekutu

Perubahan
wilayah
Pemisahan Jerman (1945)
Pihak yang terlibat
Blok Sekutu
 United Kingdom
 United States (1942–45)
Bendera Perancis Perancis
 Canada
Bendera Polandia Poland
 Netherlands
 Free France
 Belgia
 Norwegia
 Denmark
Bendera Cekoslowakia Cekoslowakia
 Australia
 New Zealand
Bendera Afrika Selatan Afrika Selatan
 Luxembourg
Bendera Yunani Yunani
Blok Poros
 Nazi Jerman
 Italia (1940–43)
Komandan
1939–1940
Bendera Perancis Maurice Gamelin
Bendera Perancis Maxime Weygand
Bendera Britania Raya Lord Gort
Bendera Britania Raya Lord Cork
Bendera Belanda Henri Winkelman
Bendera Belgia Leopold III
Bendera Norwegia Otto Ruge
1944–1945
Bendera Amerika Serikat Dwight D. Eisenhower
Bendera Britania Raya Arthur Tedder
Bendera Britania Raya Bernard Montgomery
Bendera Amerika Serikat Omar Bradley
Bendera Amerika Serikat Jacob L. Devers
Bendera Amerika SerikatGeorge Patton
Bendera Amerika Serikat Courtney Hodges
Bendera Amerika Serikat William Simpson
Bendera Amerika Serikat Alexander Patch
Bendera Britania Raya Miles Dempsey
Bendera Perancis Jean de Tassigny
Bendera Kanada Harry Crerar
1939–1940
Bendera Nazi Jerman Walter von Brauchitsch
Bendera Nazi Jerman Gerd von Rundstedt
Bendera Nazi Jerman Heinz Guderian
Bendera Nazi Jerman Fedor von Bock
Bendera Nazi Jerman Wilhelm von Leeb
Bendera Nazi Jerman Nikolaus von Falkenhorst
Templat:Country data Kingdom of Italy H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia
1944–1945
Bendera Nazi Jerman Adolf Hitler
Bendera Nazi Jerman Heinrich Himmler
Bendera Nazi Jerman Hermann Göring
Bendera Nazi Jerman Gerd von Rundstedt
Bendera Nazi Jerman Günther von Kluge
Bendera Nazi Jerman Walter Model
Bendera Nazi Jerman Albert Kesselring
Bendera Nazi Jerman Erwin Rommel
Bendera Nazi Jerman Johannes Blaskowitz
Bendera Nazi Jerman Hermann Balck
Bendera Nazi Jerman Paul Hausser
Bendera Nazi Jerman Friedrich Schulz
Bendera Nazi Jerman Kurt Student
Bendera Nazi Jerman Ernst Busch
Kekuatan
1939–1940
  • 2.862.000 tentara

1944–1945

  • 5.412.219 tentara [1]
1939–1940
  • 3.350.000 tentara

1944–1945

  • 1.500.000 tentara
Korban
1940
  • 2.121.560[3]–2.260.000 korban
    [5]

1944–1945

  • 783.860 korban[7]

Total:

  • 2.905.420–3.043.860 korban
1940
  • 160.780[9]–163.650 casualties[14]

1941–1945

Total:

  • 997,386–1,000,256 korban

Front Barat dari kawasan Eropa saat Perang Dunia II terdiri dari Denmark, Norwegia, Luksemburg, Belgia, Belanda, dan Jerman Barat.[17] Front Barat ini ditandai dengan 2 fase operasi skala besar. Fase pertama adalah dikuasai Belanda, Belgia, dan Perancis pada bulan Mei dan Juni 1940 oleh Nazi Jerman dan berlanjut pada peperangan udara antara Jerman dan Inggris (Pertempuran Britania). Fase kedua adalah peperangan darat skala besar yang dimulai dengan pendaratan pasukan sekutu di Normandia dan berlanjut sampai kalahnya Jerman bulan Mei 1945.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ MacDonald, C (2005), The Last Offensive: The European Theater of Operations. University Press of the Pacific, p.478
  2. ^ Ellis, p.255
  3. ^ Ellis provides no figure for Danish casualties, he places Norwegian losses at 2,000 killed or missing with no information provided on those wounded or captured. Dutch casualties are placed at 2.890 killed or missing, 6.900 wounded, with no information provided on those captured. Belgian casualties are placed at 7.500 killed or missing, 15.850 wounded, and 200.000 captured. French casualties amounted to 120,000 killed or missing, 250.000 wounded, and 1.450.000 taken prison. British losses totalled to 11.010 killed or missing, 14.070 wounded (only those who were evacuated have been counted), and 41.340 taken prisoner.[2] Losses in 1940, according to Ellis’ information, thus amount to 2.121.560.
  4. ^ Hooton 2007, p. 90.
  5. ^ 360.000 dead or wounded, and 1.900.000 captured[4]
  6. ^ a b c Ellis, p. 256
  7. ^ American: 109.820 killed or missing, 356.660 wounded, and 56.630 captured; British: 30.280 killed or missing, 96.670 wounded, 14.700 captured; Canadian: 10,740 killed or missing, 30.910 wounded, 2.250 captured; French: 12.590 killed or missing, 49.510 wounded, 4,730 captured; Pole: 1.160 killed or missing, 3.840 wounded, 370 captured.[6]
    Thus according to Ellis’ information, the Western Allies incurred 783.860 casualties.
  8. ^ Ellis, p. 255
  9. ^ 43.110 Germans killed or missing, 111.640 wounded, no information is provided on any who were captured. Italian losses amounted to 1.250 killed or missing, 4.780 wounded, and no information is provided on any who were captured.[8]
  10. ^ a b Frieser (1995), p. 400
  11. ^ L'Histoire, No. 352, April 2010 France 1940: Autopsie d'une défaite, p. 59.
  12. ^ Shepperd (1990), p. 88
  13. ^ Hooton 2010, p. 73.
  14. ^ Germany: 157.621 casualties (27.074 dead (The final count of the German dead is possibly as high as 49.000 men when including the losses suffered by the Kriegsmarine, because of additional non-combat causes, the wounded who died of their injuries, and the missing who were confirmed as dead.[10] However this higher figure has not been used in the overall casualty figure), 111.034 wounded, 18.384 missing,[10][11][12] as well as 1,129 aircrew killed.[13] Italia: 6.029 korban (1.247 tewas/hilang, 2,631 terluka, and 2,151 hospitalised due to frostbite[rujukan?]; Italian forces were involved in fighting in the French Alps, where severe sub-zero temperatures is common even during the summer.)
  15. ^ German losses between June 1941 and 10 April 1945, on the Western Front for the army only, amounted to 80,820 killed, 490,260 missing, and 265,526 wounded.[6]
  16. ^ Total German casualties between September 1939 to 31 December 1944, on the Western Front for both the army, Waffen SS, and foreign volunteers amounts to 128,030 killed, 399,860 wounded, and 7,614,790 captured (including 3,404,950 who were disarmed following the surrender of Germany)[6]
  17. ^ Jerman mengerahkan 40% angkatan darat dan 75% Luftwaffe mereka di Front Barat. Tahun 1944, ada sekitar 69 divisi Jerman di Perancis dan 19 di Italia (jumlahnya tidak pasti karena adanya pemindahan dan peletakan baru) Keegan, John. "The Second World War". Source-Axis History Factbook.  Menurut David Glantz PDF[pranala nonaktif], pada bulan Januari 1945 pasukan Poros telah mengerahkan 2,3 juta melawan Tentara Merah. Namun, akibat kurang persiapan pada musim dingin, mereka mengalami kekalahan dengan 510.000 tentara terbunuh di Timur dan 325.000 di Barat. Bulan April 1945, 1,96 juta tentara Jerman menghadapi 6,4 juta pasukan Tentara Merah di perbatasan Berlin, Cekoslowakia, dan beberapa daerah di kawasan timur lainnya. Di sisi lain, 4 juta tentara Sekutu di barat menghadapi tentara Jerman yang kurang dari 1 juta orang. Bulan Mei 1945, Soviet menerima 1,5 juta tentara yang menyerah, sedangkan di sisi lain 1 juta tentara Jerman lain menyerah pada Inggris dan Amerika.
  • Clarke, Jeffrey J. & Smith, Robert Ross (1993). Riviera to the Rhine. United States Army in World War II., European theater of operations. Washington D.C.: Center of Military History. ISBN 978-0-16-025966-1. CMH Pub. 7-10. 
  • Ellis, John (1993). The World War II Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for all the combatants. BCA. ISBN 978-1-85410-254-6. 
  • Gootzen, Har and Connor, Kevin (2006). "Battle for the Roer Triangle" ISBN 978-90-902145-5-9.See [1]
  • Hastings, Max. (2004). Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944–1945. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41433-9.
  • MacDonald, Charles B. (1993) [1973]. The Last Offensive. United States Army in World War II., European theater of operations (ed. Special commemorative). Washington D.C.: Center of Military History. OCLC 41111259. CMH pub. 7-9-1. 
  • Seaton, Albert (1971). The Russo-German War. New York: Praeger Publishers.
  • Weigley, Russell F. (1981). Eisenhower's Lieutenants. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-13333-5.
  • Willis, Frank Roy (1962). The French in Germany, 1945–1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Zaloga, Steve, and Dennis, Peter (2006). Remagen 1945: endgame against the Third Reich. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84603-249-0.
  • Murray, Williamson and Millett, Alan R. (2000). A War to be Won: Fighting the Second World War. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00680-1.

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Ellis, L. F. (1968). Victory in the West (Volume II). London: HMSO.
  • Kurowski, Franz. (2005). Endkampf um das Reich 1944–1945. Erlangen: Karl Müller Verlag. ISBN 3-86070-855-4.
  • Young, Peter, editor. World Almanac of World War II. St. Martin's Press.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]