Daftar organisme menurut jumlah kromosom

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Daftar organisme berikut disusun berdasarkan jumlah kromosom dalam sel berbagai tumbuhan, binatang, protista, dan makhluk hidup lain, termasuk manusia. Diberikan dalam jumlah diploid (2n). Ini bukan daftar lengkap, melainkan sebagai perbandingan antara jenis-jenis makhluk.

Organisme Nama ilmiah Jumlah diploid kromosom (2n = x) Catatan
Ciliated Protozoa Oxytricha trifallax 15600 [1]
Adders-tongue Ophioglossum reticulatum 1260 [2] Jenis tumbuhan paku ini dikenal mempunyai jumlah kromosom tertinggi di antara semua bentuk kehidupan. Jumlah yang diberikan di sini adalah yang terbanyak, menunjukkan banyak varian.
Agrodiaetus (kupu-kupu) Agrodiaetus shahrami 268 [3] Serangga ini mempunyai kromosom terbanyak di antara semua binatang.
Field Horsetail Equisetum arvense 216
Rattlesnake fern Botrypus virginianus 184[4]
Northern Lamprey Petromyzontinae 174[1]
Carp 104
Red viscacha rat Tympanoctomys barrerae 102 [5] Highest number known in mammals, formerly thought to be a tetraploid.[6]
Kamraj (fern) Helminthostachys zeylanica 94
Aquatic Rat Anotomys leander 92[7] Dahulu dikira jumlah kromosom tertinggi di antara mamalia, sama dengan Ichthyomys pittieri.
Udang Penaeus semisulcatus 86–92 [8]
Tikus pemakan kepiting (roden semiakuatik) Ichthyomys pittieri 92[7] Dahulu dikira jumlah kromosom tertinggi di antara mamalia, sama dengan Anotomys leander.
Grape fern Sceptridium 90
Landak susu genus Atelerix (landak Afrika) 90
Moonworts Botrychium 90
Landak susu genus Erinaceus (landak Woodland) 88
Nagaho-no-natsu-no-hana-warabi Botrypus strictus 88 B. strictus dan B. virginianus ditunjukkan sebagai paraphyletic dalam genus Botrypus
Burung merpati (pigeon) 80
Kalkun 80[9]
African Wild Dog Lycaon pictus 78[10]
Ayam Gallus gallus domesticus 78
Koyote Canis latrans 78[10]
Dhole Cuon alpinus 78
Dingo Canis lupus dingo 78[10]
Anjing Canis lupus familiaris 78[11] 76 autosomal dan 2 seksual.[12]
Burung merpati (dove) 78[13] Berdasarkan burung merpati African collared
Golden Jackal Canis aureus 78[10]
Serigala Canis lupus 78
Maned Wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus 76
Beruang hitam Amerika Ursus americanus 74
Beruang hitam Asia Ursus thibetanus 74
Beruang cokelat Ursus arctos 74
Beruang kutub Ursus maritimus 74
Sloth Melursus ursinus 74
Beruang madu Helarctos malayanus 74
Musang bat-eared Otocyon megalotis 72[10]
Black nightshade Solanum nigrum 72[14]
Rusa berekor putih Odocoileus virginianus 70
Elk (Wapiti) Cervus canadensis 68
Rusa merah Cervus elaphus 68
Gray Fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 66[10]
Anjing rakun Nyctereutes procyonoides 66 Some variation in the number of chromosomes between individuals [15]
Chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera 64 [16]
Echidna 63/64 63 (X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5, jantan) dan 64 (X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4X5X5, betina)[17]
Fennec Fox Vulpes zerda 64[10]
Kuda Equus ferus caballus 64
Spotted Skunk Spilogale x 64
Bagal 63 semi-infertile
Keledai Equus africanus asinus 62
Jerapah Giraffa camelopardalis 62
Gypsy moth 62
Bengal Fox Vulpes bengalensis 60
Bison amerika Bison bison 60
Sapi Bos primigenius 60
Kambing 60
Woolly Mammoth Mammuthus primigenius 58 punah; jaringan dari karkas beku
Gajah 56
Kera Capuchin Cebus x 54[18]
Hyrax Hyracoidea 54[19] Hyraxes are considered to be the closest living relative to the Elephant.[20]
Domba 54
Ngengat sutra Bombyx mori 54
Kapas Gossypium hirsutum 52[21] 2n=4x; Cultivated upland cotton is derived from an allotetraploid
Platipus Ornithorhynchus anatinus 52 [22] Ten sex chromosomes.
Spectacled Bear Tremarctos ornatus 52
Kit Fox 50
Nanas Ananas comosus 50[21]
Striped skunk Mephitis mephitis 50
Zebrafish Danio rerio 50[23]
Beaver (Eurasian) Castor fiber 48
Simpanse Pan troglodytes 48[24]
Deer Mouse Peromyscus maniculatus 48
Gorila 48
Terwelu[25][26] 48
Orang utan Pongo x 48
Kentang Solanum tuberosum 48[21] This is a tetraploid; wild relatives mostly have 2n=24.[21]
Tembakau Nicotiana tabacum 48[21] Cultivated species is a tetraploid.[21]
Manusia Homo sapiens 46[27] 44 autosomal and 2 sex
Reeves's Muntjac Muntiacus reevesi 46
Sable Antelope Hippotragus niger 46
Lumba-lumba Delphinidae Delphis 44
Eurasian Badger Meles meles 44
Kelinci 44
Fossa Cryptoprocta ferox 42
Panda raksasa Ailuropoda melanoleuca 42
Haver Avena sativa 42[21] This is a hexaploid with 2n=6x=42. Diploid and tetraploid cultivated species also exist.[21]
Anjing rakun Nyctereutes viverrinus 42 sejumlah sumber mengatakan sub-spesies berbeda dengan 38, 54, dan bahkan 56 kromosom
Rat 42
Kera Rhesus 42[28]
Gandum Triticum aestivum 42[21] This is a hexaploid with 2n=6x=42. Durum wheat is Triticum turgidum var. durum, and is a tetraploid with 2n=4x=28.[21]
Wolverine Gulo gulo 42
Beaver (American) Castor canadensis 40
European Polecat Mustela putorius 40
Ferret Mustela putorius furo 40
Hyena 40
Mangga Mangifera indica 40[21]
Tikus Mus musculus 40[29]
American Marten Martes americana 38
Beech Marten Martes foina 38
Kucing Felis catus 38
Coatimundi 38
European Mink Mustela lutreola 38
Fisher (animal) 38 a type of marten
Singa Panthera leo 38
Oriental Small-clawed Otter Aonyx cinerea 38
Babi 38
Pine Marten Martes martes 38
Rakun Procyon lotor 38[30]
Sable Martes zibellina 38
Sea Otter 38
Tanuki/Raccoon Dog Nyctereutes procyonoides albus 38
Harimau Panthera tigris 38
Cacing tanah Lumbricus terrestris 36
Long-nosed Cusimanse (a type of mongoose) 36
Meerkat Suricata suricatta 36
Red Panda 36
Bintang laut 36
Tibetan sand fox Vulpes ferrilata 36
Yellow Mongoose Cynictis penicillata 36
Porcupine Erethizon dorsatum 34 [16]
Red Fox Vulpes vulpes 34[10] Plus 3-5 microsomes.
Alfalfa Medicago sativa 32[21] Cultivated alfalfa is tetraploid, with 2n=4x=32. Wild relatives have 2n=16.[21]
American Badger Taxidea taxus 32
European honey bee Apis mellifera 32 32 untuk betina, jantan adalah haploid maka hanya punya 16.
Ragi Saccharomyces cerivisiae 32
American Mink Neovison vison 30
Pill millipede Arthrosphaera magna attems 30 [31]
Bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara 24[32][33]
Husk Tomato Physalis pubescens 24[34]
Silverleaf nightshade Solanum elaeagnifolium 24[35]
Beras Oryza sativa 24[21]
Siput 24
Kacang-kacangan Phaseolus sp. 22[21] Semua spesies dalam genus ini mempunyai jumlah kromosom yanbg sama, termasuk P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, P. acutifolis, dan P. lunatus.[21]
Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana 22[36]
Cannabis Cannabis sativa 20
Jagung Zea mays 20[21]
Kubis Brassica oleracea 18[21] Broccoli, kubis, kale, kohlrabi, brussels sprouts, dan cauliflower semuanya adalah spesies yang sama dan mempunyai jumlah kromosom yang sama.[21]
Lobak Raphanus sativus 18[21]
Kanguru 16 Ini termasuk beberapa anggota genus Macropus, tetapi tidak termasuk kanguru merah (M. rufus, 40)[37]
Koala Phascolarctos cinereus 16
Barley Hordeum vulgare 14[21]
Ercis Pisum sativum 14[21]
Rye Secale cereale 14[21]
Setan Tasmania Sarcophilus harrisii 14
Jamur lendir Dictyostelium discoideum 12 [38]
Swamp Wallaby Wallabia bicolor 10/11 11 untuk jantan, 10 untuk betina[39]
Nematoda Caenorhabditis elegans 12/11 12 untuk hermafrodit, 11 untuk jantan
Thale Cress Arabidopsis thaliana 10
Lalat buah Drosophila melanogaster 8[40] 6 autosomal, dan 2 seksual
Hawkweed 8
Muntjac India Muntiacus muntjak 6/7[41] female/male
Nyamuk Aedes aegypti 6[42] The 2n=6 chromosome number is conserved in the entire family Culicidae, except in Chagasia bathana which has 2n=8.[42]
Spider mite 4–14[43] Spider mites (family Tetranychidae) are typically haplodiploidy (males are haploid, while females are diploid)[43]
Jack jumper ant Myrmecia pilosula 2[44] 2 for females, males are haploid and thus have 1; smallest number possible. Other ant species have more chromosomes.[44]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]


Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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