Daftar dua puluh delapan Buddha

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Agama Buddha

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Konsep ajaran agama Buddha
Empat Kesunyataan Mulia
Delapan Jalan Utama
Pancasila · Tuhan
Nirvana · Tri Ratna

Ajaran inti
Tiga Corak Umum
Samsara · Kelahiran kembali · Sunyata
Paticcasamuppada · Karma

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Siddharta Gautama
Siswa utama · Keluarga

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Buddha · Bodhisattva
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Meditasi

Wilayah agama Buddha
Asia Tenggara · Asia Timur
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Indonesia · Barat

Sekte-sekte agama Buddha
Theravada · Mahayana
Vajrayana · Sekte Awal

Kitab Suci
Sutta · Vinaya · Abdhidahamma

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Di negara-negara dimana Buddhisme Theravada dianut oleh mayoritas masyarakat (Sri Lanka, Kamboja, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand), merupakan hal yang lazim bagi umat Buddhis untuk menyelenggarakan perayaan-perayaan, terutama selama musim yang baik, guna menghormati 29 Buddha.

Penghormatan para Buddha ini termasuk 28 Buddha sebagaimana dijelaskan pada Bagian 27 dalam Buddhavamsa, ditambah Bodhisattva Maitreya, Buddha (ke-29) mendatang. Buddhavamsa adalah sebuah naskah yang menjelaskan kehidupan Buddha Gautama dan dua-puluh-tujuh Buddha sebelumnya. Buddhavamsa adalah bagian dari Khuddaka Nikaya, yang kemudian merupakan bagian dari Sutta Pitaka. Sutta Pitaka merupakan satu dari tiga bagian dari Kanon Pali agama Buddha Theravada.

28 Buddha dikatakan telah mencapai pencerahan mulai dari waktu Buddha Gautama menerima Niyatha Vivarana pertamanya (persetujuan untuk menjadi yang tercerahkan berikutnya) dari Buddha Dīpankara.

Buddha-Buddha yang telah ada sebelumnya bukan hanya berjumlah 28 Buddha. Sesungguhnya, Buddha Gautama telah menyampaikan jumlah Buddha yang tidak terhingga yang telah hidup beberapa kalpa lalu.

Gambar Buddha yang berbaring di Wat Suthat di Thailand melukiskan Buddha Gautama diambang kematian (Parinibbana).
Sebuah patung Buddha Gautama dari Sarnath, abad ke-4 Masehi.

Nama 28 Buddha[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nama 28 Buddha
Nama Pāli[1][2] Kasta[2] Tempat lahir[2] Orang tua[2] Bodhirukka (tree of enlightenment)[2][3]
1 Taṇhaṅkara[4] King Sunandha, and Queen Sunandhaa Rukkaththana
2 Medhaṅkara[5] Sudheva, and Yasodhara Kaela
3 Saraṇaṅkara[6] Sumangala, and Yasawathi Pulila
4 Dīpankara[7] Brahmin[8] Rammawatinagara Sudheva, and Sumedhaya Pipphala Sumedha (also Sumati or Megha Mānava, a rich Brahman)[9]
5 Koṇḍañña[10] Kshatriya[8] Rammawatinagara Sunanda, and Sujata Salakalyana Vijitawi (a Chakravarti in Chandawatinagara of Majjhimadesa)
6 Maṅgala[11] Brahmin[8] Uttaranagara (Majhimmadesa) Uttara, and Uttara a naga Suruchi (in Siribrahmano)
7 Sumana[12] Kshatriya[8] Mekhalanagara Sudassana and Sirima a naga King Atulo, a Naga
8 Revata[13] Brahmin[8] Sudhannawatinagara Vipala and Vipula a naga A Veda-versed Brahman
9 Sobhita[14] Kshatriya[8] Sudhammanagara Sudhammanagara (father) and Sudhammanagara (mother) a naga Sujata, a Brahman (in Rammavati)
10 Anomadassi[15] Brahmin[8] Chandawatinagara Yasava and Yasodara ajjuna A Yaksha king
11 Paduma[16] Kshatriya[8] Champayanagara Asama, and Asama salala A lion
12 Nārada[17] Dhammawatinagara King Sudheva and Anopama sonaka a tapaso in Himalayas
13 Padumuttara[18] Kshatriya Hansawatinagara Anurula, and Sujata salala Jatilo an ascetic
14 Sumedha[19] Kshatriya Sudasananagara Sumedha (father), and Sumedha (mother) nipa Native of Uttaro
15 Sujāta[20] Sumangalanagara Uggata, and Pabbavati welu a chakravarti
16 Piyadassi[21] Sudannanagara Sudata, and Subaddha kakudha Kassapa, a Brahmin (at Siriwattanagara)
17 Atthadassi[22] Kshatriya Sonanagara Sagara and Sudassana champa Susino, a Brahman
18 Dhammadassī[23] Kshatriya Surananagara Suranamaha, and Sunanada bimbajala Indra, the leader of the gods (devas)
19 Siddharttha[24] Vibharanagara Udeni, and Suphasa kanihani Mangal, a Brahman
20 Tissa[25] Khemanagara Janasando, and Paduma assana King Sujata of Yasawatinagara
21 Phussa[26] Kshatriya Kasi Jayasena, and Siremaya amalaka Vijitavi
22 Vipassī[27] Kshatriya Bandhuvatinagara Vipassi (father), and Vipassi (mother) patali King Atula
23 Sikhī[28] Kshatriya Arunavattinagara Arunavatti, and Paphavatti pundariko Arindamo (at Paribhuttanagara)
24 Vessabhū[29] Kshatriya Anupamanagara Suppalittha, and Yashavati sala Sadassana (in Sarabhavatinagara)
25 Kakusandha[30] Brahmin Khemavatinagara Agidatta the purohitta Brahman of King Khema, and Visakha airisa King Khema[31]
26 Koṇāgamana[32] Brahmin[33] Sobhavatinagara Yannadatta the Brahman, and Uttara udumbara King Pabbata of a mountainous area in Mithila
27 Kassapa[34] Brahmin Baranasinagara Brahmadatta a Brahman, and Dhanavati nigroda Jotipala (at Vappulla)
28 Gautama[35] Kshatriya Kapilavastu King Suddhodana, and Maya peepal a.k.a. fig (Ficus religiosa)

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Malalasekera (2007), Malalasekera GP, Buddha, pp. 294-305
  2. ^ a b c d e Davids, TWR; Davids, R (1878). "The successive bodhisats in the times of the previous Buddhas". Buddhist birth-stories; Jataka tales. The commentarial introduction entitled Nidana-Katha; the story of the lineage. London: George Routledge & Sons. hlm. 115–44. 
  3. ^ Malalasekera (2007), Malalasekera GP, Bodhirukka, p. 319
  4. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Taṇhaṅkara
  5. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Medhaṅkara
  6. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Saraṇaṅkara
  7. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Dīpankara
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Beal (1875), Beal S, Chapter III: Exciting to religious sentiment, pp. 10-17
  9. ^ Ghosh, B (1987). "Buddha Dīpankara: twentyfourth predecessor of Gautama". Bulletin of Tibetology. 11 (new series) (2): 33–8. ISSN 0525-1516. 
  10. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Koṇḍañña
  11. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Maṅgala
  12. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Sumana
  13. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Revata
  14. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Sobhita
  15. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Anomadassi
  16. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Paduma
  17. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Nārada
  18. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Padumuttara
  19. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Sumedha
  20. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Sujāta
  21. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Piyadassi
  22. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Atthadassi
  23. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Dhammadassī
  24. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Siddhattha
  25. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Tissa
  26. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Phussa
  27. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Vipassī
  28. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Sikhī
  29. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Vessabhū
  30. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Kakusandha
  31. ^ Prophecies of Kakusandha Buddha, Konagamana Buddha and Kassapa Buddha
  32. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Koṇāgamana
  33. ^ Barua, A (2008). Dīgha-Nikāya: romanize Pāli text with English translation 2 (ed. 1st). Delhi, India: New Bharatiya Book Corporation. hlm. 6. ISBN 81-8315-096-9. 
  34. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Kassapa
  35. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Gotama

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]