Daftar benda buatan manusia di Bulan

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Berikut ini adalah tabel yang memperlihatkan daftar seluruh benda buatan manusia yang berada di permukaan Bulan.

Tabel obyek[sunting | sunting sumber]

Obyek Gambar Kebangsaan Tahun Massa (kg) Status Lokasi Gambar dari orbit
Luna 2
Luna 2 Soviet moon probe.jpg
 USSR 1959 390.2 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 29°06′LU 0°00′BT / 29,1°LU 0°BT / 29.1; -0 [1]
Ranger 4
1964 71394L.jpg
 USA 1962 331 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 15°30′LS 130°42′BB / 15,5°LS 130,7°BB / -15.5; -130.7 [2]
Ranger 6
GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 USA 1964 381 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 9°21′29″LU 21°28′48″BT / 9,358°LU 21,48°BT / 9.358; 21.480 [3]
Ranger 7
GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 USA 1964 365.7 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 10°38′LS 20°36′BB / 10,63°LS 20,6°BB / -10.63; -20.60 [4]
Luna 5  USSR 1965 1474 Hancur 8°LU 23°BT / 8°LU 23°BB / 8; -23 [5]
Luna 7  USSR 1965 1504 Hancur 9°48′LU 47°48′BB / 9,8°LU 47,8°BB / 9.8; -47.8 [6]
Luna 8  USSR 1965 1550 Hancur 9°06′LU 63°18′BB / 9,1°LU 63,3°BB / 9.1; -63.3 [7]
Ranger 8
GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 USA 1965 367 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 2°38′17″LU 24°47′13″BT / 2,638°LU 24,787°BT / 2.638; 24.787 [8]
Ranger 9
GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 USA 1965 367 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 12°49′41″LS 2°23′13″BB / 12,828°LS 2,387°BB / -12.828; -2.387 [9]
Luna 9  USSR 1966 1580 Mendarat 7°05′LU 64°22′BB / 7,08°LU 64,37°BB / 7.08; -64.37 [10]
Luna 10
Luna orbiter bus.jpg
 USSR 1966 1600 Hancur
(pasca misi)
 ? [11][12]
Luna 11
Luna-11 12.jpg
 USSR 1966 1640 Hancur  ? [11][13]
Luna 12
Luna-11 12.jpg
 USSR 1966 1670 Hancur  ? [11][14]
Luna 13  USSR 1966 1700 Mendarat 18°52′LU 62°03′BB / 18,87°LU 62,05°BB / 18.87; -62.05 [15]
Surveyor 1
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1966 270 Mendarat 2°28′26″LS 43°20′20″BB / 2,474°LS 43,339°BB / -2.474; -43.339 [16] LROC page
Lunar Orbiter 1
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1966 386 Hancur
(pasca misi)
6°42′LU 162°00′BT / 6,7°LU 162°BT / 6.70; 162 [17]
Surveyor 2
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1966 292 Hancur 5°30′LS 12°00′BB / 5,5°LS 12°BB / -5.5; -12 [18]
Lunar Orbiter 2
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1966 385 Hancur
(pasca misi)
3°00′LU 119°00′BT / 3°LU 119°BT / 3.0; 119 [19]
Lunar Orbiter 3
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1966 386 Hancur
(pasca misi)
14°18′LU 97°42′BB / 14,3°LU 97,7°BB / 14.3; -97.7 [20]
Surveyor 3
Surveyor 3 on the Moon.jpg
 USA 1967 281[21] Mendarat 3°00′54″LS 23°25′05″BB / 3,015°LS 23,418°BB / -3.015; -23.418 [22] LROC page
Lunar Orbiter 4
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1967 386 Hancur
(pasca misi)
 ? [11][23]
Surveyor 4
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1967 283 Hancur 0°24′LU 1°20′BB / 0,4°LU 1,33°BB / 0.4; -1.33 [24]
Explorer 35 (IMP-E)
IMP-E.jpg
 USA 1967 104.3 Hancur  ? [11][25]
Lunar Orbiter 5
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 USA 1967 386 Hancur
(pasca misi)
3°LU 83°BT / 3°LS 83°BB / -3; -83 [26]
Surveyor 5
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1967 281 Mendarat 1°27′40″LU 23°11′42″BT / 1,461°LU 23,195°BT / 1.461; 23.195 [27] LROC page
Surveyor 6
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1967 282 Mendarat 0°29′LU 1°24′BB / 0,49°LU 1,4°BB / 0.49; -1.40 [28] LROC page
Surveyor 7
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 USA 1967 290 Mendarat 40°52′LS 11°28′BB / 40,86°LS 11,47°BB / -40.86; -11.47 [29]
Luna 14
Luna-11 12.jpg
 USSR 1968 1670 Hancur  ? [11][30]
Apollo 10 LM (Snoopy) descent stage
LEM-linedrawing.png
 USA 1969 2211 Hancur  ? [11]
(pasca misi) [31]
Luna 15
Luna-16.jpg
 USSR 1969 2718 Hancur  ? [32]
Apollo 11 LM-5 (Eagle) descent stage
5927 NASA.jpg
 USA 1969 2034 Mendarat 0°40′27″LU 23°28′23″BT / 0,6741°LU 23,473°BT / 0.6741; 23.4730 [33] LROC page

Image

Apollo 11 LM ascent stage[34]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1969 2184 Hancur
(pasca misi)
 ? [35]
Apollo 12 LM-6 (Intrepid) descent stage
Bean Descends Intrepid - GPN-2000-001317.jpg
 USA 1969 2211 Mendarat 3°00′45″LS 23°25′18″BB / 3,0124°LS 23,4216°BB / -3.0124; -23.4216 [36] LROC page

Image

Apollo 12 LM ascent stage[34]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1969 2164 Hancur
(pasca misi)
3°56′LS 21°12′BB / 3,94°LS 21,2°BB / -3.94; -21.20 [37]
Luna 16 descent stage[38]
Luna-16.jpg
 USSR 1970 < 5727 Mendarat 0°41′LS 56°18′BT / 0,68°LS 56,3°BT / -0.68; 56.3 [39]
Luna 17 & Lunokhod 1  USSR 1970 5600 Mendarat 38°17′LU 35°00′BB / 38,28°LU 35°BB / 38.28; -35.0 [40]
Apollo 13 S-IVB (S-IVB-508)[41]
Saturn IB Second Stage with open LM adapter.jpg
 USA 1970 13454 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 2°45′LS 27°52′BB / 2,75°LS 27,86°BB / -2.75; -27.86 [42] LROC page
Luna 18
Luna-16.jpg
 USSR 1971 5600 Hancur 3°34′LU 56°30′BT / 3,57°LU 56,5°BT / 3.57; 56.5 [43]
Luna 19
Luna-22.jpg
 USSR 1971 5600 Hancur  ? [11][44]
Apollo 14 S-IVB (S-IVB-509)
Saturn IB Second Stage with open LM adapter.jpg
 USA 1971 14016 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 8°05′LS 26°01′BB / 8,09°LS 26,02°BB / -8.09; -26.02[45] LROC page

Full image

Apollo 14 LM-8 (Antares) descent stage
LRO Apollo14 landing site 369228main ap14labeled 540.jpg
 USA 1971 2144 Mendarat 3°38′43″LS 17°28′17″BB / 3,6453°LS 17,4714°BB / -3.6453; -17.4714[46]
Apollo 14 LM-8 ascent stage[34]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1971 2132 Hancur
(pasca misi)
3°25′LS 19°40′BB / 3,42°LS 19,67°BB / -3.42; -19.67[47]
Apollo 15 S-IVB (S-IVB-510)
Saturn IB Second Stage with open LM adapter.jpg
 USA 1971 14036 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 1°31′LS 11°49′BB / 1,51°LS 11,81°BB / -1.51; -11.81[48]
Apollo 15 LM-10 (Falcon) descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 USA 1971 2809 Mendarat 26°07′56″LU 3°38′02″BT / 26,1322°LU 3,6339°BT / 26.1322; 3.6339[49] LROC page

Image

Apollo 15 Lunar Rover
Apollo15LunarRover.jpg
 USA 1971 462 Mendarat 26°05′LU 3°40′BT / 26,08°LU 3,66°BT / 26.08; 3.66
Apollo 15 LM-10 ascent (Falcon) stage[34]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1971 2132 Hancur
(pasca misi)
26°22′LU 0°15′BT / 26,36°LU 0,25°BT / 26.36; 0.25[50]
Apollo 15 subsatellite
Apollo 15 Subsatellite.jpg
 USA 1971 36 Hancur
(pasca misi)
 ?[11][51]
Luna 20 descent stage[38]
Luna-16.jpg
 USSR 1972 < 5727 Mendarat 3°34′LU 56°30′BT / 3,57°LU 56,5°BT / 3.57; 56.5[52] LROC page

Image

Apollo 16 S-IVB (S-IVB-511)
Saturn IB Second Stage with open LM adapter.jpg
 USA 1972 14002 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 1°18′LU 23°48′BB / 1,3°LU 23,8°BB / 1.3; -23.8[53]
Apollo 16 LM-11 (Orion) descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 USA 1972 2765 Mendarat 8°58′23″LS 15°30′01″BT / 8,973°LS 15,5002°BT / -8.9730; 15.5002[54] LROC page

Image

Apollo 16 Lunar Rover
Apollo15LunarRover.jpg
 USA 1972 462 Mendarat 8°58′LS 15°31′BT / 8,97°LS 15,51°BT / -8.97; 15.51
Apollo 16 LM-11 (Orion) ascent stage[34]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1972 2138 Hancur
(pasca misi)
 ?[55]
Apollo 16 subsatellite
Apollo 15 Subsatellite.jpg
 USA 1972 36 Hancur
(pasca misi)
 ?[11][56]
Apollo 17 S-IVB (S-IVB-512)
Saturn IB Second Stage with open LM adapter.jpg
 USA 1972 13960 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 4°13′LS 12°19′BB / 4,21°LS 12,31°BB / -4.21; -12.31[57]
Apollo 17 LM-12 (Challenger) descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 USA 1972 2798 Mendarat 20°11′27″LU 30°46′18″BT / 20,1908°LU 30,7717°BT / 20.1908; 30.7717[58] LROC page

Image

Apollo 17 Lunar Rover
Apollo15LunarRover.jpg
 USA 1972 462 Mendarat 20°10′LU 30°46′BT / 20,17°LU 30,77°BT / 20.17; 30.77
Apollo 17 LM-12 (Challenger) ascent stage[34]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 USA 1972 2150 Hancur
(pasca misi)
19°58′LU 30°30′BT / 19,96°LU 30,5°BT / 19.96; 30.50[59]
Luna 21 & Lunokhod 2[60]  USSR 1973 4850 Mendarat 25°51′LU 30°27′BT / 25,85°LU 30,45°BT / 25.85; 30.45[61]
Explorer 49 (RAE-B)
RAE B.jpg
 USA 1973 328 Hancur  ?[11][62]
Luna 22
Luna-22.jpg
 USSR 1974 4000 Hancur  ?[11][63]
Luna 23  USSR 1974 5600 Mendarat ~12.75ºN, ~62.2ºE[64] LROC page

Image

Luna 24 descent stage[38]  USSR 1976 < 5800 Mendarat 12°45′LU 62°12′BT / 12,75°LU 62,2°BT / 12.75; 62.2[65] LROC page

Image

Hagoromo / Hiten [66]
Hiten.gif
 Japan 1990 12 Hancur
(orbit / hancur
tidak dikonfirmasikan)
 ?[67]
Hiten
Hiten.gif
 Japan 1993 143 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 34°18′LS 55°36′BT / 34,3°LS 55,6°BT / -34.3; 55.6[68]
Lunar Prospector
Lunar Prospector orbiter.jpg
 USA 1998 126 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 87°42′LS 42°21′BT / 87,7°LS 42,35°BT / -87.7; 42.35[69][70]
SMART-1
SMART-1 Impact flash.jpg
Bendera Uni Eropa ESA 2006 307 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 34°14′LS 46°12′BB / 34,24°LS 46,2°BB / -34.24; -46.2[71]
Moon Impact Probe (MIP) / Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1.jpg
 India 2008 35 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 89°LU 30°BT / 89°LS 30°BB / -89; -30[72][73][74]
SELENE Rstar (Okina)  Japan 2009 53 Hancur 28°12′47″LU 159°01′59″BB / 28,213°LU 159,033°BB / 28.213; -159.033[75][76][77]
Chang'e 1
Chang e 1.jpg
 China 2009 2000[78] Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 1°30′LS 52°22′BT / 1,5°LS 52,36°BT / -1.50; 52.36[79][80]
Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1.jpg
 India 2009 1,380 Hancur
saat misi
 ?[81]
SELENE (Kaguya) main orbiter
Kaguya mark.jpg
 Japan 2009 1984[78] Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 65°30′LS 80°30′BT / 65,5°LS 80,5°BT / -65.5; 80.5[82][83][84]
LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft
LCROSS Centaur.jpg
 USA 2009 700 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 84°43′44″LS 49°21′36″BB / 84,729°LS 49,36°BB / -84.729; -49.36,
-3.80909 km elevation
(Cabeus crater) [85][86]
LCROSS Centaur
LCROSS Centaur 1.jpg
 USA 2009 2270 Dihancurkan dengan sengaja 84°40′30″LS 48°43′30″BB / 84,675°LS 48,725°BB / -84.675; -48.725,
-3.82693 km elevation
(Cabeus crater) [87][88]
GRAIL
GRAIL.jpg
 USA 2012 132.6 Hancur
(pasca misi)
75°37′LU 26°38′BB / 75,62°LU 26,63°BB / 75.62; -26.63[89]
Chang'e 3 & Yutu  China 2013 1200 Mendarat Templat:Lunar coords and quad cat
LADEE
LADEE fires small engines.jpg
 USA 2014 248.2 Impact
Total estimated dry mass (kg) 180,244

Galeri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Peta Bulan yang memperlihatkan beberapa tempat pendaratan. (Klik untuk memperbesar)
Surveyor 3 di Bulan, difoto oleh Alan Bean
Moon map grid showing artificial objects on moon.PNG
Lunar retroreflector locations.jpg
Apollo 11 Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment.jpg

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 2". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  2. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 4". Diakses 2010-12-23. 
  3. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 6". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  4. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 7". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  5. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 5". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  6. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 7". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  7. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 8". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  8. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 8". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  9. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Ranger 9". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  10. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 9". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Spacecraft was in lunar orbit but is assumed to have decayed from orbit and crashed into the moon, location unknown.
  12. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 10". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  13. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 11". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  14. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 12". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  15. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 13". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  16. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 1". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  17. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 1". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  18. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 2". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  19. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 2". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  20. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 3". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  21. ^ Apollo 12 returned about 10 kg of the Surveyor 3's original landing mass of 302 kg to Earth to study the effects of long term exposure.
  22. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 3". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  23. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 4". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  24. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 4". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  25. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Explorer 35 (IMP-E)". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  26. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Orbiter 5". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  27. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 5". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  28. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 6". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  29. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Surveyor 7". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  30. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 14". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  31. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 10 LM(Snoopy) descent stage". Diakses 2010-12-24. 
  32. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 15". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  33. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 11 LM descent stage". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f The ascent stage of Apollo 10 was commanded to fire its engine, left lunar orbit and entered solar orbit. The ascent stage of Apollo 11 was left in orbit and thereafter its orbit decayed and it crashed onto the moon at an unknown location. The Apollo 16 ascent stage failed to crash onto moon when commanded and it decayed from orbit at a later date and also crashed at an unknown location. The ascent stages of the remaining successful missions (Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 17) were each deliberately crashed onto the moon. Apollo 13's complete Apollo Lunar Module re-entered Earth's atmosphere after having served as a lifeboat during the aborted mission.
  35. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 11 LM ascent stage". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  36. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 12 LM descent stage". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  37. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 12 LM ascent stage". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  38. ^ a b c Luna program sample return mission; mass listed is for both ascent and descent stages, though only the descent stage was left on the moon.
  39. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 16 descent stage". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  40. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 17/Lunokhod 1". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  41. ^ Astronautix.com, Apollo 13: The S-IVB/IU impacted the lunar surface at 8:10 p.m. EST on April 14 at a speed of 259 meters per second (incorrect, should probably be 2590 meters/sec), […] 137.1 kilometers from the Apollo 12 seismometer.
  42. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 13 S-IVB". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  43. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 18". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  44. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 19". Diakses 2010-12-25. 
  45. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 14 SIVB". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  46. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 14 LM descent stage". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  47. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 14 LM ascent stage". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  48. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 15 SIVB". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  49. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 15 LM descent stage". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  50. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 15 LM ascent stage". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  51. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 15 subsatellite". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  52. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 20". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  53. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 16 S-IVB". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  54. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 16 descent stage". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  55. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 16 ascent stage". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  56. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 16 Subsatellite". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  57. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 17 S-IVB". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  58. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 17 descent stage". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  59. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Apollo 17 ascent stage". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  60. ^ Lander and rover weighed 1814 kg; the rest assumed to have decayed in orbit and impacted the moon.
  61. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 21/Lunokhod 2". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  62. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Explorer 49/RAE-B". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  63. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 22". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  64. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 23". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  65. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Luna 24". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  66. ^ Was injected into lunar orbit in 1990, assumed to have decayed from orbit.
  67. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Hagoromo/Hiten Orbiter". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  68. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Hiten". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  69. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Lunar Prospector". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  70. ^ "University of Texas Engineering News - Lunar Prospector Impact Location Estimate". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  71. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - SMART 1". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  72. ^ MIP was crash-landed on the Shackleton crater
  73. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Moon Impact Probe / Chandrayaan 1". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  74. ^ "Frontline India's National Magazine - Moon Mystery - Moon Impact Probe impact coordinates". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  75. ^ "JAXA Press Release (PDF)" (dalam bahasa Japanese). JAXA. 2009-02-18. Diakses 2009-02-20. 
  76. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Okina (Rstar) - Kaguya". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  77. ^ "JAXA 18 February 2009 SELENE status - Okina (Rstar) impact estimate position - (page 3 in Japanese translated with Babelfish)". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  78. ^ a b "Upcoming International Missions to the Moon" (PPT). NASA. 2007-01-11. Diakses 2009-04-12.  / cf. 2.3t with fuel ("Spacecrafts launched in 2007". Diakses 2009-04-12. )
  79. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Chang'e 1". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  80. ^ "China People's Daily Online, 2 March 2009 - Chang'e-1 impacts moon (coordinates)". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  81. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - Chandrayaan 1". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  82. ^ "JAXA HOT TOPICS". JAXA. 2009-06-11. Diakses 2009-06-11. 
  83. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - KAGUYA (SELENE)". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  84. ^ "JAXA Selenological & Engineering Explorer - KAGUYA (SELENE) impact coordinates". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  85. ^ "Guide to Seeing the LCROSS Lunar Impact". Diakses 2009-10-27. 
  86. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  87. ^ "Guide to Seeing the LCROSS Lunar Impact". Diakses 2009-10-27. 
  88. ^ "NASA NSSDC Master Catalog - LCROSS Centaur". Diakses 2011-01-01. 
  89. ^ "NASA Probes Prepare for Mission-Ending Moon Impact". Diakses 2012-12-13. 

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