Daftar Ibu Negara Amerika Serikat

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Michelle Obama, Ibu Negara Amerika Serikat saat ini

Ibu Negara Amerika Serikat (bahasa Inggris: First Lady of the United States) adalah gelar bagi nyonya rumah Gedung Putih. Karena posisi ini secara tradisi diisi oleh istri Presiden Amerika Serikat, gelar ini lebih sering diberikan bagi istri presiden yang sedang menjabat. Namun, ada beberapa perempuan yang bukan istri presiden yang mendapat gelar ini, jika presiden adalah seorang lajang atau duda, atau jika istri presiden tidak dapat memenuhi tugas-tugas sebagai ibu negara. Pada kasus-kasus ini, posisi tersebut diisi oleh kerabat atau teman perempuan dari presiden. Sejak 20 Januari 2009 posisi ini dipegang oleh Michelle Obama.

Daftar Ibu Negara Amerika Serikat[sunting | sunting sumber]

No Ibu Negara Menikah Presiden Mulai Jabatan Akhir Jabatan
1 Portrait painting of Martha Washington Martha Custis Washington[1][2]
(née Dandridge)
6 Januari 1759 George Washington 30 April 1789 4 Maret 1797
2 Portrait painting of Abigail Adams Abigail Adams[3][4]
(née Smith)
25 Oktober 1764 John Adams 4 Maret 1797 4 Maret 1801
3 Portrait painting of Martha Jefferson Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson[5][6]
(née Wayles)
1 Januari 1772 Thomas Jefferson [n 1]
4 Portrait painting of Dolley Madison Dolley Todd Madison[7][8]
(née Payne)
14 September 1794 James Madison 4 Maret 1809 4 Maret 1817
5 Portrait painting of Elizabeth Monroe Elizabeth Monroe[9][10]
(née Kortright)
16 Februari 1786 James Monroe 4 Maret 1817 4 Maret 1825
6 Portrait engraving of Louisa Adams Louisa Catherine Adams[11][12]
(née Johnson)
26 Juli 1797 John Quincy Adams 4 Maret 1825 4 Maret 1829
7 Rachel Jackson Rachel Robards Jackson[13][14]
(née Donelson)
7 Januari 1794 Andrew Jackson [n 2]
8 Portrait painting of Hannah Van Buren Hannah Van Buren[15][16]
(née Hoes)
7 Januari 1794 Martin Van Buren [n 3]
9 Portrait painting of Anna Harrison Anna Harrison[17][18]
(née Tuthill Symmes)
22 November 1795 William Henry Harrison 4 Maret 1841[n 4] 4 April 1841
10 Portrait painting of Letitia Tyler Letitia Tyler[19][20]
(née Christian)
29 Maret 1813 John Tyler 4 April 1841 10 September 1842[n 5]
11 Portrait painting of Julia Tyler Julia Tyler[21][22]
(née Gardiner)
26 Juni 1844 26 Juni 1844[n 6] 4 Maret 1845
12 Portrait painting of Sarah Polk Sarah Polk[23][24]
(née Childress)
1 Januari 1824 James K. Polk 4 Maret 1845 4 Maret 1849
13 Portrait painting of Margaret Taylor Margaret Taylor[25][26]
(née Mackall Smith)
21 Juni 1810 Zachary Taylor 4 Maret 1849 9 Juli 1850
14 Portrait painting of Abigail Fillmore Abigail Fillmore[27][28]
(née Powers)
February 5, 1826 Millard Fillmore 9 Juli 1850 4 Maret 1853
15 Engraving of Jane Pierce Jane Pierce[29][30]
(née Means Appleton)
19 November 1834 Franklin Pierce 4 Maret 1853 4 Maret 1857
16 Portrait photograph of Harriet Lane Harriet Lane[31][32] [n 7] James Buchanan 4 Maret 1857 4 Maret 1861
17 Portrait photograph of Mary Lincoln Mary Todd Lincoln[33][34]
(née Todd)
4 November 1842 Abraham Lincoln 4 Maret 1861 15 April 1865
18 Portrait engraving of Eliza Johnson Eliza Johnson[35][36]
(née McCardle)
17 Mei 1827 Andrew Johnson 15 April 1865 4 Maret 1869
19 Portrait photograph of Julia Grant Julia Boggs Grant[37][38]
(née Dent)
17 Mei 1827 Ulysses S. Grant 4 Maret 1869 4 Maret 1877
20 Portrait photograph of Lucy Hayes Lucy Ware Hayes[39][40]
(née Webb)
30 Desember 1852 Rutherford B. Hayes 4 Maret 1877 4 Maret 1881
21 Portrait photograph of Lucretia Garfield Lucretia Garfield[41][42]
(née Rudolph)
30 Desember 1852 James A. Garfield 4 Maret 1881 19 September 1881
22 Portrait of Ellen Arthur Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur[43][44]
(née Lewis Herndon)
25 Oktober 1859 Chester A. Arthur [n 8]
23 Portrait of Frances Cleveland Frances Clara Cleveland[45][46]
(née Folsom; later Preston)
2 Juni 1886 Grover Cleveland 2 Juni 1886[n 9] 4 Maret 1889
24 Portrait of Caroline Harrison Caroline Lavinia Harrison[47][48]
(née Scott)
20 Oktober 1853 Benjamin Harrison 4 Maret 1889 25 Oktober 1892[n 10]
25 Portrait of Frances Cleveland Frances Clara Cleveland[45][46]
(née Folsom; later Preston)
2 Juni 1886 Grover Cleveland 4 Maret 1893 4 Maret 1897
26 Portrait of Ida McKinley Ida McKinley[49][50]
(née Saxton)
25 Januari 1871 William McKinley 4 Maret 1897 14 September 1901
27 Portrait of Edith Roosevelt Edith Kermit Roosevelt[51][52]
(née Carow)
2 Desember 1886 Theodore Roosevelt 14 September 1901 4 Maret 1909
28 Helen Louise Taft[53][54]
(née Herron)
19 Juni 1886 William Howard Taft 4 Maret 1909 4 Maret 1913
29 Portrait of Ellen Wilson Ellen Louise Wilson[55][56]
(née Axson)
19 Juni 1886 Woodrow Wilson 4 Maret 1913 6 Agustus 1914[n 11]
30 Portrait of Edith Wilson Edith Galt Wilson[57][58]
(née Bolling)
18 Desember 1915 18 Desember 1915 4 Maret 1921
31 Portrait of Florence Harding Florence Mabel deWolfe Harding[59][60]
(née Kling)
8 Juli 1891 Warren G. Harding 4 Maret 1921 2 Agustus 1923
32 Portrait of Grace Coolidge Grace Anna Coolidge[61][62]
(née Goodhue)
4 Oktober 1905 Calvin Coolidge 2 Agustus 1923 4 Maret 1929
33 Portrait of Lou Hoover Lou Hoover[63][64]
(née Henry)
4 Oktober 1905 Herbert Hoover 4 Maret 1929 4 Maret 1933
34 Portrait of Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt[65][66]
(née Roosevelt)
17 Maret 1905 Franklin D. Roosevelt 4 Maret 1933 12 April 1945
35 Portrait of Bess Truman Elizabeth Virginia Truman[67][68]
(née Wallace)
28 Juni 1919 Harry S. Truman 12 April 1945 20 Januari 1953
36 Portrait of Mamie Eisenhower Mamie Geneva Eisenhower[69][70]
(née Doud)
1 Juli 1916 Dwight D. Eisenhower 20 Januari 1953 20 Januari 1961
37 Portrait of Jacqueline Kennedy Jacqueline Lee Kennedy Onassis[71][72]
(née Bouvier, later Onassis)
12 September 1953 John F. Kennedy 20 Januari 1961 22 November 1963
38 Portrait of Lady Bird Johnson Claudia "Lady Bird" Alta Johnson[73][74]
(née Taylor)
7 November 1934 Lyndon B. Johnson 22 November 1963 20 Januari 1969
39 Portrait of Pat Nixon Thelma "Pat" Catherine Nixon[75][76]
(née Ryan)
21 Juni 1940 Richard Nixon 20 Januari 1969 9 Agustus 1974
40 Portrait of Betty Ford Elizabeth "Betty" Ann Warren Ford[77][78]
(née Bloomer)
15 Oktober 1948 Gerald Ford 9 Agustus 1974 20 Januari 1977
41 Portrait of Rosalynn Carter Eleanor Rosalynn Carter[79][80]
(née Smith)
7 Juli 1946 Jimmy Carter 20 Januari 1977 20 Januari 1981
42 Portrait of Nancy Reagan Nancy Davis Reagan[81][82]
(née Robbins, Davis)
6 Maret 1952 Ronald Reagan 20 Januari 1981 20 Januari 1989
43 Portrait of Barbara Bush Barbara Bush[83][84]
(née Pierce)
6 Januari 1945 George H. W. Bush 20 Januari 1989 20 Januari 1993
44 Portrait of Hillary Rodham Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton[85][86]
(née Rodham)
11 Oktober 1975 Bill Clinton 20 Januari 1993 20 Januari 2001
45 Portrait of Laura Bush Laura Lane Bush[87][88]
(née Welch)
5 November 1977 George W. Bush 20 Januari 2001 20 Januari 2009
46 Portrait of Michelle Obama Michelle LaVaughn Obama[89][90]
(née Robinson)
3 Oktober 1992[91] Barack Obama 20 Januari 2009 Masih Menjabat

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson meninggal dunia pada 1782, sembilan belas tahun sebelum Thomas Jefferson menjadi Presiden. Putri mereka, Martha Jefferson Randolph, berperan sebagai nyonya rumah Gedung Putih dan secara tidak resmi sebagai Ibu Negara selama masa jabatan Thomas Jefferson. Pada saat Martha Randolph berhalangan, Presiden Jefferson meminta Dolley Madison, istri Menteri Luar Negeri, James Madison, sebagai gantinya.[5][6]
  2. ^ Rachel Jackson meninggal dunia pada bulan Desember, 1828, tiga bulan sebelum Andrew Jackson menjadi Presiden. Keponakan Rachel, Emily Donelson, menjabat sebagai nyonya rumah Gedung Putih dan secara tidak resmi sebagai Ibu Negara sampai kematiannya pada tanggal 19 Desember 1836. Jackson putri-di-hukum, Sarah Yorke Jackson, juga menjabat sebagai nyonya rumah Gedung Putih dan secara tidak resmi sebagai Ibu Negara mulai pada tanggal 26 November 1834. Sarah tinggal di Gedung Putih sampai akhir masa jabatan presiden keduanya Jackson pada tanggal 4 Maret 1837. [13][14]
  3. ^ Hannah Van Buren died on February 5, 1819, eighteen years before Martin Van Buren became President. Angelica Singleton Van Buren, Martin's daughter-in-law assumed the role of White House hostess and unofficial First Lady during his incumbency.[15][16]
  4. ^ Anna Harrison, President William Henry Harrison's wife, was too sick to travel with William to Washington D.C. for his inauguration, and asked their daughter-in-law Jane Irwin Harrison to accompany him and act as hostess until her proposed arrival in May. William Harrison died after serving only 31 days in office, and Anna never made the trip to the White House.[17][18]
  5. ^ Letitia Tyler died while her husband, John Tyler, was still in office. Their daughter-in-law, Priscilla Cooper Tyler acted as White House hostess and unofficial First Lady until John Tyler remarried on June 26, 1844.[19][20]
  6. ^ Julia Tyler married John Tyler on June 26, 1844.[21][22]
  7. ^ James Buchanan was a life-long bachelor. His niece, Harriet Lane served as First Lady.[31][32]
  8. ^ Ellen Arthur died in 1880. When Chester A. Arthur became President after James A. Garfield died, he asked his sister, Mary Arthur McElroy to be the White House hostess.[43][44]
  9. ^ Frances Cornelia Folsom married Grover Cleveland on June 2, 1886. Grover entered office on March 4, 1885 as a bachelor; his sister Rose Cleveland served as White House hostess until he and Frances married.[45][46]
  10. ^ Caroline Harrison died while her husband, Benjamin Harrison, was still in office. Their daughter, Mary Harrison McKee acted as White House hostess and unofficial First Lady for the remainder of his incumbency.[47][48]
  11. ^ Ellen Wilson died on August 6, 1914, while her husband Woodrow Wilson was still in office. Their daughter, Margaret Woodrow Wilson, acted as White House hostess and unofficial First Lady until he remarried on December 18, 1915.[55][56]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Biography of Martha Washington". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  2. ^ "First Lady Biography: Martha Washington". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  3. ^ "Biography of Abigail Adams". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  4. ^ "First Lady Biography: Abigail Adams". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b "Biography of Martha Jefferson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Martha Jefferson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Biography of Dolley Madison". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  8. ^ "First Lady Biography: Dolley Madison". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  9. ^ "Biography of Elizabeth Monroe". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  10. ^ "First Lady Biography: Elizabeth Monroe". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Biography of Louisa Adams". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  12. ^ "First Lady Biography: Louisa Adams". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  13. ^ a b "Biography of Rachel Jackson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  14. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Rachel Jackson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  15. ^ a b "Biography of Hannah Van Buren". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Hannah Van Buren". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  17. ^ a b "Biography of Anna Harrison". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  18. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Anna Harrison". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  19. ^ a b "Biography of Letitia Tyler". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  20. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Letitia Tyler". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  21. ^ a b "Biography of Julia Tyler". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  22. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Julia Tyler". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Biography of Sarah Polk". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  24. ^ "First Lady Biography: Sarah Polk". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Biography of Margaret Taylor". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  26. ^ "First Lady Biography: Margaret Taylor". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Biography of Abigail Fillmore". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  28. ^ "First Lady Biography: Abigail Fillmore". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Biography of Jane Pierce". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  30. ^ "First Lady Biography: Jane Pierce". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  31. ^ a b "Biography of Harriet Lane". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  32. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Harriet Lane". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Biography of Mary Lincoln". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  34. ^ "First Lady Biography: Mary Lincoln". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 9, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Biography of Mary Lincoln". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  36. ^ "First Lady Biography: Mary Lincoln". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Biography of Julia Grant". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  38. ^ "First Lady Biography: Julia Grant". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Biography of Lucy Hayes". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  40. ^ "First Lady Biography: Lucy Hayes". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  41. ^ "Biography of Lucretia Garfield". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  42. ^ "First Lady Biography: Lucretia Garfield". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  43. ^ a b "Biography of Ellen Arthur". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  44. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Ellen Arthur". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  45. ^ a b c "Biography of Frances Cleveland". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  46. ^ a b c "First Lady Biography: Frances Cleveland". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  47. ^ a b "Biography of Caroline Harrison". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  48. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Caroline Harrison". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Biography of Ida McKinley". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  50. ^ "First Lady Biography: Ida McKinley". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Biography of Edith Roosevelt". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  53. ^ "Biography of Helen Taft". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  55. ^ a b "Biography of Ellen Wilson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  56. ^ a b "First Lady Biography: Ellen Wilson". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  57. ^ "Biography of Edith Wilson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  59. ^ "Biography of Florence Harding". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  61. ^ "Biography of Grace Coolidge". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  63. ^ "Biography of Lou Hoover". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  65. ^ "Biography of Eleanor Roosevelt". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  66. ^ "First Lady Biography: Eleanor Roosevelt". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  67. ^ "Biography of Bess Truman". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  68. ^ "First Lady Biography: Bess Truman". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  69. ^ "Biography of Mamie Eisenhower". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  71. ^ "Biography of Jacqueline Kennedy". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  72. ^ "First Lady Biography: Jackie Kennedy". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  73. ^ "Biography of Lady Bird Johnson". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  75. ^ "Biography of Pat Nixon". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  77. ^ "Biography of Betty Ford". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  78. ^ "First Lady Biography: Betty Ford". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  79. ^ "Biography of Rosalynn Carter". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
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  81. ^ "Biography of Rosalynn Carter". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  82. ^ "First Lady Biography: Rosalynn Carter". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  83. ^ "Biography of Barbara Bush". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  84. ^ "First Lady Biography: Barbara Bush". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  85. ^ "Biography of Hillary Clinton". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  86. ^ "First Lady Biography: Hillary Clinton". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  87. ^ "Biography of Laura Bush". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  88. ^ "First Lady Biography: Laura Bush". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  89. ^ "Biography of Laura Bush". Washington, D.C.: The White House. Diakses January 20, 2009. 
  90. ^ "First Lady Biography: Michelle Obama". Canton, Ohio: National First Ladies' Library. Diakses January 10, 2009. 
  91. ^ Fornek, Scott (October 3, 2007). "Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet'". Chicago Sun-Times. Diakses January 10, 2009. 

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